Yini ama-cyclone

isiphepho

Phakathi kwazo zonke izimo zezulu ezenzeka emhlabeni wethu, kukhona ezinye eziheha ukunakwa okukhethekile: iziphepho. Kunezinhlobo eziningana, ngayinye inezici zayo ezenza kube yinto okufanele inconywe.

Kepha akhiwa kanjani? Uma ufuna ukwazi konke ngabo, ungaphuthelwa lokhu okukhethekile.

 Siyini isiphepho?

Ku-meteorology, isiphepho singasho izinto ezimbili:

  • Imimoya enamandla kakhulu eyenzeka ezindaweni lapho ingcindezi yasemkhathini iphansi. Zithuthuka ngemibuthano emikhulu ezizungeza ngokwazo, futhi zivela ogwini, imvamisa ezishisayo.
  • Ingcindezi ephansi esifundeni sasemkhathini lapho imvula eningi nomoya omkhulu kwenzeka khona. Yaziwa nangokuthi i-squall, futhi kumamephu wesimo sezulu uzobona ukuthi imelwe nge- "B".
    I-anticyclone iyaphikisana, okungukuthi, indawo yengcindezi ephezulu esilethela isimo sezulu esihle.

Yiziphi izinhlobo ezikhona?

Kunezinhlobo ezinhlanu zeziphepho, okuyilezi:

 Isiphepho saseTropical

isiphepho esishisayo

Kuyinto a i-whirlpool ejikeleza ngokushesha enendawo yokucindezela ephansi (noma iso). Ikhiqiza imimoya enamandla nemvula eningi, idonsa amandla ayo ekucineni komoya oswakeme.

Iyakhula, isikhathi esiningi, ezifundeni ezisemaphethelweni omhlaba, emanzini afudumele abhalisa ukushisa okungaba ngu-22ºC, futhi lapho umoya ungazinzile kancane, okwenza kube nohlelo lokucindezela okuphansi.

Engxenyeni esenyakatho izungeza ngokwewashi; Ngakolunye uhlangothi, engxenyeni eseningizimu ijikela emuva. Kunoma ikuphi, iyakhiqiza umonakalo omkhulu ezindaweni ezingasogwini ngenxa yemvula enamandla nakho okubangela ukuqhuma kwesiphepho nokudilika komhlaba.

Ngokuya ngamandla alo, kubizwa ngokuthi yi-tropical depression, tropical storm, noma isiphepho (noma izivunguvungu zase-Asia). Ake sibone izici zayo eziyinhloko:

  • Ukucindezeleka kwaseTropicalijubane lomoya lifinyelela ku-62km / h, futhi lingadala umonakalo omkhulu nezikhukhula.
  • Isiphepho esishisayo: isivinini somoya esiphakathi kuka-63 no-117km / h, nemvula yaso enamandla ingadala izikhukhula ezinkulu. Imimoya enamandla ingadala iziphepho.
  • ISiphepho: Siqanjwa kabusha ngokuthi isiphepho lapho umfutho udlula ukuhlukaniswa kwesiphepho esishisayo. Ijubane lomoya ubuncane be-119km / h, futhi lingadala umonakalo omkhulu ogwini.

Izigaba Zesiphepho

Iziphepho ziyiziphepho ezingabhubhisa kakhulu, ngakho-ke kubalulekile ukuzazi ukuze uthathe izinyathelo ezidingekayo futhi ngaleyo ndlela ugweme ukulahleka kwempilo yabantu.

I-Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale ihlukanisa izigaba ezinhlanu zeziphepho:

  • Isigaba 1: isivinini somoya siphakathi kuka-119 no-153km / h. Idala izikhukhula ngasogwini, nomonakalo othile emachweba.
  • Isigaba 2: isivinini somoya siphakathi kuka-154 no-177km / h. Kubanga ukonakala kophahla, iminyango namawindi, kanye nasezindaweni ezisogwini.
  • Isigaba 3: isivinini somoya siphakathi kuka-178 no-209km / h. Kubanga ukonakala kwesakhiwo ezakhiweni ezincane, ikakhulukazi ezindaweni ezisogwini, futhi kubhidliza izindlu ezihambahambayo.
  • Isigaba 4: isivinini somoya siphakathi kuka-210 no-249km / h. Kubangela ukulimala okubanzi ezakhiweni zokuvikela, uphahla lwezakhiwo ezincane luyawa, namabhishi namathala kuguguleka.
  • Isigaba 5: isivinini somoya singaphezulu kuka-250km / h. Kubhidlika uphahla lwamabhilidi, izimvula ezinamandla zidala izikhukhula ezingafinyelela ezansi kwezakhiwo ezisezindaweni ezisogwini, futhi kungadingeka ukuthuthwa kwezindawo zokuhlala.

 Izinzuzo zeziphepho ezishisayo

Yize zingadala umonakalo omkhulu, iqiniso ukuthi nazo zinjalo omuhle kakhulu okwezemvelo, njengokulandelayo:

  • Bangakwazi ukuqeda izikhathi zesomiso.
  • Umoya odalwe yisiphepho ungavuselela isivalo sezimila, ususe izihlahla ezindala, ezigulayo noma ezibuthakathaka.
  • Ingaletha amanzi ahlanzekile ezindaweni zemilambo.

 Isiphepho se-Extratropical

Ukucindezeleka kwaseTropical

Iziphepho zaseStratropical, ezaziwa nangokuthi iziphepho eziphakathi nobubanzi, atholakala ebangeni eliphakathi loMhlaba, phakathi kuka-30º no-60º kusukela enkabazwe. Ziyizinto ezijwayelekile kakhulu, ezihambisana nama-anticyclone ahambisa isikhathi phezu kweplanethi, akhiqize okungenani ukugcwala okuncane.

Zihlotshaniswa ne- uhlelo olunengcindezi ephansi olwenzeka phakathi kwezindawo ezishisayo nezigxobo, futhi kuncike ekuhlukeni kwezinga lokushisa phakathi kwenqwaba yomoya ofudumele nobanda. Kumele kuqashelwe ukuthi uma kukhona ukwehla okubonakalayo futhi okusheshayo kwengcindezi yasemkhathini, bayabizwa i-cyclogenesis eqhumayo.

Zingakha lapho isiphepho esishisayo singena emanzini abandayo, okungadala umonakalo omkhulu, njenge izikhukhula o ukuguguleka kwenhlabathi.

Isiphepho esingaphansi komhlaba

isiphepho esishisayo

Kuyisiphepho ukuthi inezici zezindawo ezishisayo futhi okwengeziwe. Isibonelo, isiphepho esingaphansi komhlaba i-Arani, esakhiwe ngoMashi 14, 2011 ngaseBrazil futhi sahlala izinsuku ezine, sasinokuqubuka okungu-110km / h, ngakho-ke kwakuthathwa njengesiphepho esishisayo, kepha eyakhiwe emkhakheni woLwandle i-Atlantic lapho izivunguvungu zasezindaweni ezishisayo ngokuvamile zingakheki khona.

Isiphepho sePolar

ISiphepho

Eyaziwa nangokuthi i-arctic cyclone, iyisistimu yengcindezi ephansi enobubanzi phakathi 1000 no-2000 km. Inempilo emfushane kunaleyo yeziphepho zasezindaweni ezishisayo, ngoba kuthatha amahora angama-24 kuphela ukufika ezingeni eliphezulu.

I-Genera imimoya enamandla, kepha imvamisa ayidali monakalo ngoba zakheka ezindaweni ezinabantu abaningi.

 UMesocyclone

supercell

Kuyinto a i-vortex yomoya, phakathi kuka-2 no-10km ububanzi, obakhiwa ngaphakathi kwesiphepho esidlulisayo, okungukuthi, umoya uyakhuphuka futhi ujikeleze ku-eksisi eqondile. Imvamisa kuhlotshaniswa nesifunda sendawo sengcindezi ephansi ngaphakathi kwesiphepho semvula, esingadala imimoya enamandla yendawo nesichotho.

Uma izimo ezilungile zikhona kwenzeka kanye nokukhushulwa ku- ama-supercell, okuyizinto ngaphandle kweziphepho ezinkulu ezijikelezayo, lapho kungakha khona isiphepho. Lesi simo esimangalisayo senziwa ezimeni zokungazinzi okuphezulu, futhi lapho kunemimoya enamandla ezindaweni eziphakeme. Ukuze ubabone, kuyalulekwa ukuya emaThafeni Amakhulu ase-United States kanye nasePampean Plains yase-Argentina.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.