Ayini ama-asteroids

i-asteroid endaweni yonke

Ku-astronomy, ama-meteorite nama-asteroids kukhulunywa ngawo izikhathi eziningi. Abantu abaningi bayangabaza ngokuthi umehluko phakathi kwabo kanye yini ama-asteroids Ngempela. Ukuze uqonde ngokugcwele zonke izici zesimiso sethu sonozungezilanga, kuyadingeka ukwazi ukuthi ama-asteroids ayini.

Ngenxa yalesi sizathu, sizonikezela lesi sihloko ukuze sikutshele ukuthi yiziphi ama-asteroids, yiziphi izici zawo, imvelaphi nobungozi.

Ayini ama-asteroids

yini ama-asteroids

Ama-asteroids amatshe asemkhathini mancane kakhulu kunamaplanethi futhi azungeza ilanga emizileni eyi-elliptical enezigidi zama-asteroids, iningi labo elibizwa ngokuthi "ibhande le-asteroid". Ezinye zisakazwa emizileni yamanye amaplanethi esimiso sonozungezilanga, kuhlanganise noMhlaba.

Ama-asteroids ayisihloko socwaningo oluqhubekayo ngenxa yokuba seduze kwawo eMhlabeni. Naphezu kweqiniso lokuthi bafinyelele iplanethi yethu esikhathini esidlule, amathuba okuba nomthelela aphansi kakhulu. Eqinisweni, ososayensi abaningi bathi ukunyamalala kwezibankwakazi kubangelwa umthelela wesibhakabhaka.

Igama elithi asteroid livela egameni lesiGreki elisho "inkanyezi," libhekisela ekubukekeni kwazo ngoba zibukeka njengezinkanyezi uma zibhekwa ngesibonakude esiseMhlabeni. Esikhathini esiningi sekhulu le-XNUMX, ama-asteroids ayebizwa ngokuthi "ama-planetoids" noma "amaplanethi amancane."

Ezinye zaphahlazeka emhlabeni wethu. Lapho zingena emkhathini, ziyakhanya futhi zibe ama-meteorite. Ama-asteroid amakhulu kunawo wonke ngezinye izikhathi abizwa ngokuthi ama-asteroids. Abanye abantu banabalingani. I-asteroid enkulu kunazo zonke i-Ceres, cishe amakhilomitha angu-1.000 ububanzi. Ngo-2006, i-International Astronomical Union (IAU) yayichaza njengeplanethi encane efana ne-Pluto. Bese Vesta futhi Pallas, 525 km. Eziyishumi nesithupha zitholwe ngaphezu kuka-240 km, kanti eziningi ezincane.

Isisindo esihlangene sawo wonke ama-asteroids esimisweni sonozungezilanga sincane kakhulu kunesenyanga. Izinto ezinkulu zicishe zibe yindilinga, kodwa izinto ezingaphansi kwamamayela ayi-160 ububanzi zinezimo ezinde, ezingajwayelekile. Abantu abaningi badinga phakathi kwamahora angu-5 kuya kwangu-20 ukuze baqedele ukuphenduka okukodwa ku-shaft.

Bambalwa ososayensi abacabanga ngama-asteroids njengezinsalela zamaplanethi acekeleke phansi. Ngokunokwenzeka, ahlala endaweni esimisweni sonozungezilanga lapho kwakungenzeka khona iplanethi enkulu, hhayi ngenxa yethonya elibhubhisayo leJupiter.

Origen

I-hypothesis ithi ama-asteroids ayizinsalela zamafu egesi nothuli ajiya ngesikhathi iLanga noMhlaba kwakheka eminyakeni eyizigidi ezinhlanu edlule. Ezinye zezinto ezivela kulelo fu zahlangana phakathi nendawo, zakha umnyombo owadala ilanga.

Okunye okusele kuzungeza i-nucleus entsha, kwakha izingcezu ezinosayizi abahlukene ezibizwa ngokuthi "ama-asteroids". Lezi zivela ezingxenyeni zendaba lokho azifakwa elangeni noma amaplanethi esimiso sonozungezilanga.

uhlobo lwe-asteroid

izinhlobo ze-asteroids

Ama-asteroids ahlukaniswe ngamaqembu amathathu ngokuya ngendawo yawo kanye nohlobo lokuqoqa:

  • Ama-asteroids ebhande. Yilawo atholakala emizileni yasemkhathini noma emngceleni weMars neJupiter. Leli bhande liqukethe eziningi zalezo ezisesimisweni sonozungezilanga.
  • I-centaur asteroid. Azungeza emikhawulweni ephakathi kweJupiter noma iSaturn naphakathi kwe-Uranus noma iNeptune, ngokulandelana.
  • i-trojan asteroid. Yilawo ahlanganyela ngokuzungeza kwamaplanethi kodwa ngokuvamile akwenzi mehluko.

Labo abaseduze neplanethi yethu bahlukaniswe izigaba ezintathu:

  • Asteroids Uthando. Yizona ezidlula emzileni we-Mars.
  • I-Apollo Asteroids. Ngakho-ke lezo ezeqa umjikelezo woMhlaba ziwusongo oluhlobene (nakuba ingozi yomthelela iphansi).
  • I-Aton Asteroids. Lezo zingxenye ezidlula emzileni woMhlaba.

Izici eziyinhloko

ayini ama-asteroid emkhathini

Ama-asteroids abonakala ngamandla adonsela phansi abuthaka kakhulu, okubavimbela ekubeni yindilinga ngokuphelele. Ububanzi bawo bungahluka ukusuka kumamitha ambalwa ukuya emakhulwini amakhilomitha.

Akhiwe ngezinsimbi namatshe (ubumba, idwala le-silicate kanye ne-nickel-iron) ngezilinganiso ezingahluka ngokuya ngohlobo ngalunye lwendikimba yasezulwini. Azinawo umkhathi kanti ezinye zinenyanga okungenani eyodwa.

Kusukela ebusweni bomhlaba, ama-asteroid avela njengamaphoyinti amancane okukhanya njengezinkanyezi. Ngenxa yobuncane bayo kanye nebanga elide ukusuka eMhlabeni, ulwazi lwakhe lusekelwe ku-astrometry ne-radiometry, amajika alula kanye ne-spectroscopy yokumuncwa (izibalo zezinkanyezi ezisivumela ukuthi siqonde ingxenye enkulu yesimiso sonozungezilanga).

Lokho okufana nezinkanyezi ezinomsila kanye nezinkanyezi ezinomsila ukuthi zombili ziyindikimba yasezulwini ezungeza ilanga, ngokuvamile zithatha izindlela ezingavamile (njengokusondela elangeni noma kwamanye amaplanethi), futhi ziyizinsalela zezinto ezakha isimiso sonozungezilanga.

Nokho, ziyahlukahluka ngokuthi izinkanyezi ezinomsila zenziwe ngothuli negesi, kanye nezinhlamvu zeqhwa. Izinkanyezi ezinomsila zaziwa ngemisila noma imizila eyishiya ngemuva, nakuba ingashiyi njalo imizila.

Njengoba ziqukethe iqhwa, isimo sazo kanye nokubukeka kwazo kuzohluka kuye ngokuthi ziqhelelene kangakanani nelanga: zizobanda kakhulu futhi zibe mnyama uma zikude nelanga, noma zizofudumala zikhiphe uthuli negesi (yingakho imvelaphi yezulu contrail). Eduze nelanga Inkanyezi enomsila kucatshangwa ukuthi yafaka amanzi nezinye izinto eziphilayo eMhlabeni lapho iqala ukwakheka.

Kunezinhlobo ezimbili zama-kite:

  • isikhathi esifushane. Izinkanyezi ezinomsila ezithatha iminyaka engaphansi kuka-200 ukuzungeza ilanga.
  • isikhathi eside Inkanyezi enomsila akha imizila ende futhi engalindelekile. Zingathatha iminyaka efinyelela ezigidini ezingu-30 ukuqeda ukuzungeza ilanga.

Ibhande le-Asteroid

Ibhande le-asteroid liqukethe inyunyana noma ukulinganiselwa kwezindikimba zasezulwini ezimbalwa ezisatshalaliswa ngendlela yendandatho (noma ibhande), elitholakala phakathi kwemikhawulo ye-Mars ne-Jupiter. Kulinganiselwa ukuthi inama-asteroid amakhulu angaba ngamakhulu amabili (amakhilomitha ayikhulu ububanzi) kanye nama-asteroid amancane acishe abe yisigidi (ikhilomitha elilodwa ububanzi). Ngenxa yobukhulu be-asteroid, ezine zihlonzwe njengezivelele:

  • ICeres. Iyona enkulu kunazo zonke ebhandeni futhi iyona kuphela esondela kakhulu ekuthathweni njengeplanethi ngenxa yokwakheka kwayo okuyindilinga okuchazwe kahle.
  • Vesta. Yinkanyezi yesibili ngobukhulu ebhandeni kanye nesibhakabhaka esikhulu nesiminyene kakhulu. Ukuma kwayo kuyindilinga eyisicaba.
  • I-Pallas. Ingeyesithathu ngobukhulu emabhandeni futhi inengoma ethambekile, ekhetheke ngobukhulu bayo.
  • I-Hygieia. Ingowesine ngobukhulu ebhandeni, inobubanzi obungamakhilomitha angamakhulu amane. Ingaphezulu layo limnyama futhi kunzima ukulifunda.

Ngithemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi mayelana nokuthi ayini ama-asteroid nezici zawo.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.