Uyini umthala

amaqoqo ezinkanyezi

Emkhathini kunezinkulungwane zezinhlanganisela zezinkanyezi ezinokuma okuhlukile futhi ezithatha zonke izinhlobo zezindikimba zasezulwini. Imayelana nemithala. Lapho ebuzwa mayelana uyini umthalaSingasho ukuthi ziyizakhiwo ezinkulu endaweni yonke lapho izinkanyezi, amaplanethi, amafu egesi, uthuli lwe-cosmic, i-nebulae nezinye izinto zihlanganiswe ndawonye noma zivaliwe ngesenzo sokuheha kwamandla adonsela phansi.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela ukuthi uyini umthala, yiziphi izici zawo nezinhlobo zawo ezikhona.

Uyini umthala

ukwakheka komthala

Iqembu noma ukuhlangana okukhulu kwezinkanyezi lapho kutholakala khona zonke izinhlobo zezindikimba zasezulwini, njengamaplanethi, ama-nebulae, uthuli lwe-cosmic nezinye izinto. Isici esiyinhloko sokuthi imithala inakho ukukhanga kwamandla adonsela phansi ahlanganisa zonke lezi zinto ndawonye. Abantu bakwazile ukubona imithala kuwo wonke umlando wethu njengezimpawu ezisakazeka esibhakabhakeni sasebusuku. Ngenxa yokuthuthuka kobuchwepheshe esinabo futhi sinemininingwane eminingi ngabo.

Isimiso sethu sonozungezilanga lapho kutholakala khona ilanga nawo wonke amaplanethi kuyingxenye yomthala owaziwa ngokuthi iMilky Way. Ezikhathini zakudala, akekho owayazi ukuthi lomugqa omhlophe owawela isibhakabhaka wawungani yingakho wawubiza ngokuthi umgwaqo wobisi. Eqinisweni, amagama omthala noMilky Way aqhamuka emsukeni ofanayo. AmaGreki ayekholelwa ukuthi izinkanyezi zingamaconsi obisi afafazwe unkulunkulukazi uHera ngenkathi esondla uHercules.

Ku IMilky Way singathola ukwakheka kwezinkanyezi eziningana nothuli oluphakathi kwezinkanyezi. Okuphawuleka kakhulu amaqoqo e-nebulae nezinkanyezi. Kungenzeka ukuthi zikhona nakweminye imithala. Imithala ihlukaniswa ngokobukhulu nangokwakheka kwayo. Zisukela ezinkanyezini ezincane ezinamashumi "ezigidi" ezinkanyezi ezinkulu kuya ezinkanyezini ezinkulu eziqukethe izigidigidi zezinkanyezi. Ngokuya ngesimo, zingaba yi-elliptical, spiral (njenge-Milky Way), i-lenticular noma ingajwayelekile.

Emkhathini obonakalayo, kukhona okungenani imithala engama-2 trillion, iningi lawo elinobubanzi phakathi kwama-parsecs ayi-100 kuya kwayi-100.000. Amaningi awo ahlanganiswe ngamaqoqo emithala futhi lawa angamaqoqo amakhulu.

Izici eziyinhloko

uyini umthala nezici

Kulinganiselwa ukuthi kufika ku-90% wobunzima bomthala ngamunye buhlukile ezintweni ezijwayelekile; ikhona kepha ayitholakali, yize ithonya lalo lingaba. Ibizwa ngendaba emnyama ngoba ayikhiphi ukukhanya. Njengamanje, kumane kuwumqondo wethiyori osetshenziselwa ukuchaza indlela yokuziphatha kwemithala.

Kwesinye isikhathi umthala uzisondeza komunye umthala bese zigcina zishayisane, kodwa zinkulu futhi ziyavuvukala kangangokuthi cishe akukho ukushayisana phakathi kwezinto ezizibumbile. Noma, kunalokho, Inhlekelele ingenzeka. Kunoma ikuphi, ngoba amandla adonsela phansi abangela ukuba izinto zihlangane, ukuhlangana kuvame ukuholela ekuzalweni kwezinkanyezi ezintsha.

Imithala yayikhona endaweni yonke isikhathi eside ngaphambi kokwakhiwa kwesimiso sonozungezilanga. Lolu uhlelo olwakhiwe ngezinto eziningi, njenge izinkanyezi, ama-asteroid, ama-quasar, izimbobo ezimnyama, amaplanethi, uthuli lwe-cosmic, nemithala.

Izinhlobo zemithala

uyini umthala

Kunezindlela eziningi zokuhlukanisa imithala, kepha okuvame kakhulu kuya ngokuma kwawo.

  • Imithala ye-Elliptical: yilezo ezinokubukeka okuyindilinga ngenxa yobuncane abanabo eceleni kwe-eksisi. Zakhiwa izinkanyezi ezindala kakhulu ezivame ukutholakala ezigabeni zemithala. Kulezo ezaziwayo kuze kube manje, imithala emikhulu kunayo yonke ingama-ellipticals. Kukhona futhi nosayizi omncane.
  • Imithala evuthayo: yilezo ezinesimo sokuvunguza. Iqukethe uhlobo lwediski olwaluyisicaba futhi lunezingalo ezizungezile oluyinika isimo salo. Inani elikhulu lamandla ligxilwe engxenyeni emaphakathi futhi imvamisa yakhiwa imbobo emnyama ngaphakathi. Zonke izinto ezifana nezinkanyezi, amaplanethi nothuli zizungeza isikhungo. Labo abanezingalo ezinde kakhulu bathatha isimo esinde kakhulu esibukeka njenge-barbell kunesiyingi. Maphakathi nale mithala kulapho izinkanyezi kucatshangwa ukuthi zizalelwa khona.
  • Imithala engavamile: abanayo i-morphology ecacile, kepha bathambekele ekubeni nezinkanyezi ezincane ezingakatholakali.
  • Imithala ye-Lenticular: zinomumo ophakathi kwemithala evunguza neyindilinga. Kungashiwo ukuthi zingamadiski angenazo izingalo anenani elincane lezinto eziphakathi kwezinkanyezi, yize ezinye zingaletha inani elithile.
  • Okukhethekile: njengoba nje igama liphakamisa, kukhona ezinye ezinokuma okungajwayelekile nokungajwayelekile. Avamile kakhulu ngokwakhiwa nangosayizi.

Umsuka nokuziphendukela kwemvelo

Imvelaphi yemithala iseyimpikiswano engapheli. Ngokomqondo wegama elifanayo, izazi zezinkanyezi zikholelwa ukuthi zaqala ukwakheka kungekudala Big Bang qhuma. Kwakungukuqhuma komhlaba okwadala ukuzalwa kwendawo yonke. Esigabeni sokuqhuma, amafu egesi ahlangana futhi acindezelwa ngaphansi kwamandla adonsela phansi, akha ingxenye yokuqala yomthala.

Izinkanyezi zingahlangana ngamaqoqo omhlaba ukuze zenzele umthala, noma mhlawumbe umthala wakha kuqala bese kuthi izinkanyezi eziqukethwe zihlangane. Le mithala emincane mincane kunamanje futhi isondelene kakhulu, kepha njengoba ishayisana futhi iba yingxenye yendawo yonke enwebekayo, iyakhula futhi iguqule isimo.

Iningi lezibonakude zesimanje likwazile ukuthola imithala emidala kakhulu, eyaqala ngemuva nje kweBig Bang. IMilky Way yakhiwe ngegesi, uthuli, nezinkanyezi okungenani eziyizinkulungwane eziyikhulu. Yilapho iplanethi yethu itholakala khona futhi yakhiwe njengomoya ovinjelwe. Wenziwe ngegesi, uthuli, futhi okungenani izinkanyezi eziyizigidi eziyizinkulungwane eziyikhulu. Ngenxa yefu eliwugqinsi lothuli negesi elenza kungabonakali kahle, isikhungo salo cishe asikwazi ukuhlukanisa. Kodwa-ke, ososayensi bakholelwa ukuthi iqukethe imbobo emnyama emnyama, noma ngokufanayo, umgodi omnyama onesisindo sezinkulungwane noma izigidi zamasosha elanga.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi mayelana nokuthi uyini umthala nokuthi yiziphi izici zawo.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.