Umsakazo

impahla kanye ne-radioactivity

La umsakazo Yimpahla impahla ethile enayo yokukhipha amandla ngokuzenzekelayo emvelweni. Imvamisa ibonakala njengezinhlayiya ze-subatomic ngendlela yemisebe kagesi kagesi. Ngokuya ngokuthi ukuphi emkhakheni we-electromagnetic, kungaba yimisebe ephezulu noma ephansi yemisebe. Lesi yisimo esidalwa ukungazinzi kwamandla enyukliya ku-athomu ye-athomu.

Kule ndatshana sizokutshela zonke izici, izinhlobo nokubaluleka kwe-radioactivity.

Izici eziyinhloko

imisebe

I-nucleus engazinzile engeyento ye-radioactive iyaqala ukubola. Phakathi nalokhu kubola kukhona ukuphuma kwe-radioactivity ize ifinyelele ekuqineni kwamandla. Ukukhishwa kwemisebe kunomthombo wamandla aphezulu, okunika amandla aphezulu e-ionizing akwazi ukuthinta izinto eziyizimpendulo kuwo.

Kunezinhlobo eziningi ze-radioactivity kuya ngokwamukelwa kwayo nezimpawu zayo. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, sine-radioactivity yemvelo, nokuyinto etholakala ngaphandle kokungenelela komuntu. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, i-radioactivity yokufakelwa yilokho okukhiqizwa ukungenelela komuntu. Okokuqala kuvame ukutholakala ngokwemvelo kuma-radioisotopes. Owesibili yi ama-radioisotopes okufakelwa nezinto ezisezingeni eliphakeme. Ama-radioisotop amaningi avela ngokwemvelo awanabungozi ngakho-ke angasetshenziswa emkhakheni wezokwelapha. Ukwenza isibonelo, sine-carbon 14 ne-potassium 40. Lawa ma-radioisotopes awusizo wukuphola izinto nezinto ezihamba ngomhlabathi.

Yize i-radioactivity inezicelo eziningi kubantu, futhi inemiphumela eyingozi engaholela ekufeni. Uma umthamo wemisebe umuntu awutholayo uphezulu, amathuba okuthuthukisa ukuguquka kwezakhi zofuzo okungathandeki noma umdlavuza akhula ngokungenakulinganiswa.

Ukusebenza kwemisebe yemvelo nokufakelwa

umsakazo

Imisebe yemvelo yakhiwa iqoqo lezinto ezine-nuclei engazinzile ngokwemvelo. Njengoba i-nuclei ingazinzile ngokuphelele ngamandla, iyahlakazeka ngokuzenzekelayo futhi igweme ukusebenza kwemisebe. Imelwe yizakhi zoqweqwe lomhlaba, umkhathi kanye nalezo ezivela emkhathini. Okuvame kakhulu yilokhu okulandelayo: i-uranium-238, i-uranium-235, i-carbon-14, i-uranium-235, ne-radon-222.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, sine-radioactivity yokufakelwa. Yakhiwa yiqembu lezinto ezinemisebe eyakhiwe kumalabhorethri ocwaningo ngabantu. Okuzokwenziwa ukuqhunyiswa kwamabhomu ngezinto ezingekho emsakazweni ezine-nuclei efana ne-athomu ye-helium ezokwazi ukuziguqula zibe yi-isotopes enemisebe. Izinto ezinemisebe esekujuleni koqweqwe lomhlaba futhi ezilethwe obala ngemisebenzi yezomnotho efana ne kungukukhishwa kwezimayini nowoyela. Zithathwa njengezenziwe ngoba ngokwemvelo bezingakwazi ukuba semhlabeni.

Iningi le-radioactivity elenziwe ngabantu kungenxa yezakhi eziphakeme kakhulu nezokwenziwa. I-nuclei yalezi zinto ivame ukubola ngokushesha ukuze ikwazi ukusungula ezinye izinto.

Izinhlobo ze-radioactivity

izikhungo zamandla enuzi

Lapho sesihlukanise ukuthi yiziphi izinhlobo ezahlukahlukene ezikhona ngokuya ngemvelaphi yazo, sizobona ukuthi yiziphi izinhlobo ze-radioactivity ezikhona ngokuya ngezici zazo.

Imisebe ye-Alpha

Kuyinhlayiyana ekhipha i-nucleus engazinzile. Zenziwe ngama-proton amabili nama-neutron amabili. Ngakho-ke, imisebe ye-alpha ibhekwa njenge-athomu yeqhwa enqunu ngokuphelele ngaphandle kokuthola ama-electron. Ngenxa yobukhona bama-proton amabili ku-nucleus ye-athomu, inhlayiya ye-alpha inikezwa ngecala elihle. Imisebe ye-Alpha uma ubonile futhi waqinisekisa ukuthi ingena kancane kakhulu futhi imiswa kalula yiphepha. Imvamisa inebanga elincane emoyeni. Ezinye izibonelo zama-athomu akhipha imisebe ye-alpha yi-uranium-238 ne-radium-226.

Imisebe ye-Beta

Lolu hlobo lwemisebe ye-ionizing futhi lunebanga lomoya cishe lemitha elilodwa. Ingamiswa yishidi le-aluminium foil. Ngesikhathi sesigaba sokubola kwemisebe, kukhishwa i-electron kusuka ku-positron. Zombili zinomsuka wenuzi. Kungakho kunezinhlobo ezimbili zemisebe ye-beta: i-beta + ne-beta -. Okokuqala kungenxa yokukhishwa kwe-electron yemvelaphi yenuzi enecala elihle futhi eyesibili ukukhishwa kwe-electron yemvelaphi yenuzi kanye ne-neutron eguqulwa ibe yi-proton.

Imisebe yeGamma

Kuyinto imisebe ye-electromagnetic nature. Ngamagagasi anamandla futhi angena ngaphakathi amiswa kuphela yilokho okuholayo. Amandla wokungena avumela ukusetshenziswa kwawo ngendlela ye-cobalt-60 ekwelapheni umdlavuza ezindaweni ezijulile zomzimba.

Ukukhishwa kwe-neutron

Luhlobo lwe-radioactivity engasebenzisi ionizing emiswa ngamanzi ikakhulukazi. Ukubaluleka kwale radiation ukuthi iyakwazi ukuguqula izinto ezingekho emisebeni zibe ezinye ezikhona.

Aplicaciones

Sizobona ukuthi hlobo luni lwezinhlelo zokusebenza ezinomsakazo womuntu.

Ezokwelapha

Ama-isotopu e-radioactive asetshenziselwa ukwelapha ngezinhloso zokwelapha nokuxilonga. Iningi lazo lisebenza njengabagandaganda ukuthola ukuxilongwa kwesifo esithile ngoba sinezici ezifanayo nezama-athomu ezinto ezingekho emisebeni. Ngokwesibonelo, iodine-131 isetshenziswa kwezokwelapha ukuthola ukuphuma kwenhliziyo nevolumu ye-plasma. Kodwa-ke, ukusetshenziswa okubaluleke kakhulu kwalesi sakhi se-radioactive ukukwazi ukukala umsebenzi wegciwane le-thyroid. Lokhu kungenxa yokuthi amahomoni ahambisa i-iodine atholakala endlaleni yegilo.

Imisebenzi yesayensi neyezemfundo

Izinto ezisetshenziswa ngemisebe zisetshenziselwa ukucacisa izingxenye zamafutha nentuthu. Ezifundweni ezahlukahlukene zemivubukulo, umsebenzi wekhabhoni-14 usetshenziselwa ukuthola iminyaka yezinsalela ezithile. Ngenxa yale isotope eyenzeka ngokwemvelo emkhathini, singathandana futhi siwazi umlando weplanethi yethu. Futhi yilokho le isotopu ifakwe kuphela izidalwa eziphilayo.

I-Industria

Isetshenziselwa ukufaka inzalo ngezinto zokwelapha, ukudla kanye neziqukathi eziqukethe. Ingasetshenziselwa ukucubungula izindwangu, i-non-stick cookware, ama-tracers anemisebe kawoyela wezimoto, ukuqeda amagesi anobuthi afana nesulfure dioxide ne-nitrogen oxides, njll.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi mayelana ne-radioactivity nezici zayo.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

*

*

  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.