Umjaho wesikhala

umjaho wasemkhathini

Umuntu uhlale elangazelela kakhulu. Lapho eqala ukuthuthukisa ubuchwepheshe, wayenenhloso yokushiya iplanethi yethu futhi akwazi ukuhlola inyanga nawo wonke amaplanethi angomakhelwane wesimiso sonozungezilanga. Konke lokhu kudale ukuqala kwe- umjaho wasemkhathini. Ososayensi abangaphezu kwama-30.000 abavela emazweni angama-66 ekuhloleni indawo ezungeze umhlaba wethu baqala umjaho wasemkhathini. Izinhloso zokuqala zokuthumela iziphuphutheki zokwenziwa emkhathini zamenyezelwa ngo-1955.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela konke odinga ukukwazi ngomjaho wasemkhathini nokuthi yini obe yintuthuko yomuntu maqondana nayo.

Izici zomjaho wesikhala

ubuchwepheshe bezinkanyezi

Ngemuva kweminyaka eminingana emva kwalokho, abaseSoviet bafeza lo msebenzi ngeSputnik 1. Ngo-1957 isathelayithi yokuqala yokufakelwa emlandweni yokufinyelela emhlabeni. Yisiqalo sokuqala esingaholela ekuqaleni kwalokho okwaziwa ngokuthi umjaho wasemkhathini. Lo mjaho wasendaweni ngokwesimo seMpi Yomshoshaphansi ungaqondakala njengomjaho wezingalo lapho abaseMelika nabaseSoviet babelwela ukulawula amasu emkhathini. Kwakudingeka ukufezekisa amandla hhayi kuphela kweplanethi yethu kepha nakho konke okuzungezile.

Umncintiswano waphela ngo-1975 lapho kufakwa khona umkhumbi-mkhathi i-Apollo-Soyuz futhi kuzozwakala ukuthi ezinye zezinto ezibaluleke kakhulu kwezobuchwepheshe ezake zenziwa zenzeka ngaphezu kweminyaka engamashumi amabili. Futhi ukuthi lo mbango wenza ososayensi nobuchwepheshe bathuthuka ngokweqile. Ake sibone ukuthi yiziphi izinyathelo ezibaluleke kakhulu nezikhathi ezenzeka emjahweni wesikhala.

Iqiniso lokuqala esesikhulume ngalo kwaba ukwethulwa esikhaleni kwesiphuphutheki se-Sputnik 1 Wayenesisindo esingu-83 kg futhi wayelinganiselwa kubhasikidi. Kwakuyisiphuphutheki sokuqala esenziwe ngumuntu esasingazungeza iplanethi yethu.

Isinyathelo sesibili emjahweni wesikhala kwaba nguLika, inja ye-astronaut. Ngo-1957 inja uLika yaba yisilwane sokuqala ukuhamba esikhaleni esikepeni iSputnik 2. Isonto elilodwa ngemuva kokwethulwa, inja yafa ngenxa yokushoda komoya-mpilo. Yize bekuyinto abaningi ababeyibheka njengokuthi wasiza kanjani ukwenza ucwaningo nentuthuko yolwazi lwasemkhathini.

Umjaho wesikhala: igxathu negxathu

ukuthuthuka komjaho wasemkhathini

Sizohlaziya ukuthi yiziphi zonke izinyathelo zomjaho wasemkhathini.

Isathelayithi yokuqala esebenzisa amandla elanga

Yize kunabantu abaningi abacabanga ukuthi amandla elanga ayinto yesimanjemanje, ekuqaleni kuka-1958 iNASA yafaka isathelayithi eyaziwa ngokuthi yiVanguard 1 emzileni wayo. I-satellite yokuqala yethulwa emkhathini owawunikwe amandla amandla elanga kuphela. Lokhu kwaba ukunqoba okukhulu kwe-United States emncintiswaneni wesikhala. Yize ungqongqoshe weSoviet Union ayidelela ngokuphelele le satellite, eyakhe, eyayinkulu kakhulu, yaphuma emzileni wayo yasha lapho sebebuyela emhlabeni. Ngokuphambene nalokhu, lesi sethelayithi sisemzileni wayo kuze kube namuhla. Kubhekwa njengesathelayithi endala kunazo zonke ekhona emkhathini futhi kulinganiselwa ukuthi iyaphunyuka ekuqhubekeni kokujikeleza eminye iminyaka engaba ngu-240.

Isathelayithi yokuqala yokuxhumana

Ngawo lowo nyaka, igoli langempela lokuqala latholakala ngesikhathi somjaho wesikhala se-NASA ngokubeka isathelayithi yokuqala yezokuxhumana emzileni. Yethulwe ngensimbi futhi ngenxa yalokho namuhla sinamandla okuxhumana nesikhala.

Isinyathelo esilandelayo emjahweni wesikhala kwakuwumfanekiso wokuqala wohlangothi olude lwenyanga. Siyazi ukuthi emhlabeni wethu asikwazi ukubona uhlangothi lwenyanga. Lapha singabona kuphela ubuso obukhonjiswayo futhi buhlala bunjalo. Futhi lokho kungenxa yokuthi isivinini sokujikeleza kwenyanga sisodwa nokuhumusha kuhambisana neqiniso lokuthi ihlale ibonisa ubuso obufanayo.

Hamu imfene

Enye intuthuko abantu ababa nayo phakathi nalomjaho wasemkhathini ukuthi imfene yaba i-hominid yokuqala ukuhamba yaya emkhathini. Indiza yakhe yathatha imizuzu engu-16 kuphela ngemuva kwalokho wasindiswa e-Atlantic Ocean enomhuzuko kuphela ekhaleni.

Kakade ngonyaka we-1961 yilapho indoda yokuqala yakwazi ukuya esikhaleni. Lapho ugibela iVostok 1, uYuri Alekséyevich Gagarin waba ngumuntu wokuqala ukuhambela emkhathini. Ngemuva kweminyaka emibili uValentina Tereshkova waba ngowesifazane wokuqala ukuya esikhumulweni semishini ukuthi Bekuzohlala izinsuku ezi-3 futhi lapho kuqede khona ama-laps angama-48 azungeze uMhlaba.

Kancane kancane le ntuthuko yesayensi ithela izithelo. Ngo-1965 kulapho umuntu wokuqala wakwazi ukwenza ukuhamba ngezinyawo, ukuhlala imizuzu eyi-12 ngaphandle komkhumbi.

Ukuthintana kokuqala nenyanga nokufika kwenyanga yokuqala

Umkhumbi-mkhathi i-Apollo 8 waba ngowokuqala ukungena ekuzungezeni kwenyanga eboshwe ngabantu. Wangena kumkhuhlane odonsela phansi evela komunye umzimba wasezulwini okokuqala emlandweni. Abasebenzi bayo baba ngabokuqala ukubona uhlangothi lwenyanga, kanye nokubuka umhlaba kusuka kusathelayithi yethu.

Ngemuva kweminyaka, bekuzofika imishini ebizothatha igxathu elikhulu eliya phambili esintwini. Ukufika komuntu enyangeni. Ngo-1969, u-Armstrong noBuzz Aldrin baba ngamadoda amabili okuqala ukuhlala eNyangeni egibele i-Apollo 11 Lunar Module Eagle.

Umjaho wesikhala: ngale kwenyanga

Ukuhlolwa kwe-NASA

Inyanga ayisabhekiwe kangako. Ngo-1973, kwasungulwa isathelayithi yokuqala eyayingafinyelela emzileni we-Jupiter. Kuyaziwa ngokuthi yi-Pioneer 10. Ekugcineni, sinohambo lokuqala oluya eMercury nasekupheleni kweMpi Yomshoshaphansi. Uhambo oluya eMercury lwenziwa ngo-1974 lwaba iMariner 10 iphenya eyokuqala ukufinyelela iplanethi iMercury.

Ngalokhu kufezeke umjaho omkhulu wasendaweni futhi kwaqeda iMpi Yomshoshaphansi.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

*

*

  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.