Umfula omude kunayo yonke eYurophu

imifula yomfula i-volga

IYurophu inenethiwekhi ende yemifula enokugeleza okukhulu futhi enikezela ngamanzi kubantu. I- umfula omude kunayo yonke eYurophu Kusuka emfuleni iVolga. Ugeleza udabule iRussia emaphakathi futhi ufinyelele eRussia eseningizimu, uthele oLwandle iCaspian. Indawo yayo yokubamba amanzi ingu-1.360.000 km2. Kubhekwa njengomfula omude kunayo yonke eYurophu futhi unezici ezihlukile.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela konke odinga ukukwazi ngomfula omude kunayo yonke eYurophu nezimpawu zawo.

Izici eziyinhloko

i-volga

Umfula iVolga uqhamuka eNtabeni iValdai phakathi kweMoscow neSaint Petersburg bese ungena oLwandle iCaspian. Akuwona umfula omude kunayo yonke eYurophu, kodwa futhi ngumfula omkhulu kunayo yonke. Ingamakhilomitha angama-3.690 ubude futhi inokugeleza okuphakathi kwamamitha ama-cubic ayi-8.000 ngomzuzwana.

Umcengezi wawo we-hydrological uhlanganisa indawo engamakhilomitha-skwele ayi-1.350.000, usezingeni le-18 emhlabeni. Futhi ngumfula omkhulu kunayo yonke eYurophu ngokukhishwa nokugeleza. Kuthathwa kabanzi njengomfula kazwelonke waseRussia. Izwe lasendulo laseRussia, i-khanate yaseRussia, lavela ngasemfuleni iVolga.

Ngokomlando, kungumgwaqo obalulekile wezimpucuko zase-Eurasia. Lo mfula ugeleza phakathi kwamahlathi, amahlathi asemahlathini nezindawo ezinotshani eRussia. Amadolobha amane kwamakhulu amakhulu eRussia, kufaka phakathi inhlokodolobha yezwe iMoscow, atholakala echibini loMfula iVolga. Amanye amadamu amakhulu emhlabeni aseduze koMfula iVolga.

Kungokwesitsha esivaliwe soLwandle iCaspian futhi ngumfula omude kunayo yonke ogelezela echibini elivaliwe. Umfula iVolga ukhuphuka usuka eziNtabeni iValdai endaweni ephakeme ngamamitha angama-225 enyakatho-ntshonalanga yeMoscow futhi cishe amakhilomitha angama-320 eningizimu-mpumalanga yeSaint Petersburg, ugelezele empumalanga udabule iLake Strzh, iTver, iDubna, iRybinsk neYaroslav Russia, iNizhny Novgorod neKazan. Ukusuka lapho ijikela eningizimu, idlule amanye amadolobha ambalwa bese ithululela oLwandle iCaspian ngezansi kwe-Astrakhan. Amamitha ayi-28 ngaphansi kogu lolwandle.

Esikhathini salo esinamasu amaningi, igobele ngaseDon. Engxenyeni engenhla yoMfula iVolga eduze kwaseStaritsa, uMfula iVolga ngo-1912 wawunemifudlana eminingi, okubaluleke kakhulu okwakunguMfula iKama, uMfula i-Oka, uMfula iVetluga noMfula iSura. IVolga nemingenela yayo yakha uhlelo loMfula iVolga, ogeleza udlule endaweni engamakhilomitha-skwele angaba ngu-1.350.000 engxenyeni enabantu abaningi eRussia.

Umlomo womfula omude kunayo yonke eYurophu

umfula omude kunayo yonke e-europe

Khumbula ukuthi umfula omude kunayo yonke eYurophu kufanele ube nomlomo omkhulu. Umlomo wayo unebude cishe bamakhilomitha ayi-160 futhi ufaka iziteshi ezifika ku-500 nemifula emincane. Isiziba somkhumbi esikhulu kunazo zonke eYurophu ukuphela kwendawo eRussia lapho ungathola khona izilwane ezinjengama-flamingo, ama-pelican nama-lotus. Ngenxa yamakhaza aphakeme kule ndawo yaseRussia, imvamisa iqandiswe ngobude bomfula wonke izinyanga ezintathu zonyaka. Izinyanga zasebusika umfula omude kunayo yonke eYurophu uqandiswe ngokuphelele.

UMfula iVolga ugeleza iningi lasentshonalanga yeRussia. Iningi lamachibi alo amakhulu ahlinzeka ngenkasa kanye namandla kagesi ophehlwa ngamanzi. Ubude balo mfula busetshenziselwa ukwandisa ukukhiqizwa kwamandla avuselelekayo uma kunikezwa ama-hydraulic jumps angakhiwa eduze komfula omude kunayo yonke eYurophu. ICanos yaseMoscow, iVolga-Don Canal, nomgudu wamanzi iVolga-Baltic kwakha umsele wamanzi ophakathi nezwe oxhumanisa iMoscow noLwandle Olumhlophe, uLwandle iBaltic, uLwandle iCaspian, uLwandle i-Azov, neBlack Sea.

Imithelela yezemvelo yomfula omude kunayo yonke eYurophu

umfula omude kunayo yonke eYurophu ungcolisiwe

Izinga eliphezulu lokungcola kwamakhemikhali kube nomthelela omubi eMfuleni iVolga nasendaweni ehlala kuyo. Izimbali nezilwane kuthinteka isenzo somuntu kuyo yonke indlela. Ngokuthuthuka kwezobuchwepheshe kanye nesikhathi sezimboni, kuningi okukhishwayo okugcina kungcolise amanzi futhi kudale ukuthi imvelo nezindawo zezinhlobo eziningi zezitshalo nezilwane zithinteke kabi.

Isigodi somfula sinezinga eliphezulu lokuzala futhi sikhiqiza ukolweni omningi. Iqukethe nezinsiza ezicebile zamaminerali. Imboni enkulu kawoyela igxile echibini loMfula iVolga. Ezinye izinsizakusebenza zibandakanya igesi yemvelo, usawoti kanye nomanyolo we-potash. IVolga Delta noLwandle iCaspian yizindawo zokudoba. I-Astrakhan, eseningizimu, iyisikhungo somkhakha we-caviar.

Eminye yemithelela yezemvelo yomfula omude kunayo yonke eYurophu ukuthi uvame ukusetshenziselwa izinhloso zokuhamba. Ngenxa yokwakhiwa kwamadamu amakhulu phakathi neminyaka yezimboni, umfula iVolga uvuleke kancane. Kubaluleke kakhulu ukuthuthwa kwemikhumbi nezokungena ezweni eRussia kwazise wonke amadamu asemfuleni afakelwe ukukhiya kwemikhumbi nemikhumbi ngobukhulu obukhulu. Zonke lezi zikebhe zingasuka oLwandle iCaspian ziye cishe ekugcineni komfula endaweni ephakeme kakhulu.

Izinga lokuzulazula nokungcoliswa komhlaba

Ukungcola komfula omude kunayo yonke eYurophu ikhule kuphela kusukela eminyakeni yezimboni. Kwaphawulwa ukuthi ngonyaka wezi-2016, umkhawulo ovunyelwe wokuhlunga kawoyela kanye nokutholakala kwawo emanzini omfula wakhuphuka uma kuqhathaniswa nocwaningo olufanayo olwenziwa ngonyaka wezi-2015. Okwenza izinto zibe zimbi kakhulu, ukuminyana kokungcola ngo-2016 kwaqhubeka nokwanda unyaka wonke.

Imikhiqizo enenani eliphakeme kakhulu lokungcola okutholakele ifaka i-iron, i-mercury ne-nickel. Ekuqaleni kuka-Agasti walowo nyaka, uNdunankulu waseRussia uMedvedev wakhipha imiyalo efanelekile yokusebenzisa ngokushesha uhlelo lokuhlanza uMfula iVolga. Ngokwemininingwane enikezwe nguMnyango Wezemvelo waseRussia, ukuqaliswa kwe Uhlelo lokuhlanza umfula iVolga luzobiza cishe ama-ruble angama-34,4 billion, noma cishe ama-dollar ayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezingama-580.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngomfula omude kunayo yonke eYurophu nezici zawo.


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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.