umfula i-ewufrathe

i-Ewufrathe emadolobheni

El I-Ewufrathe ungumfula omude kunayo yonke eNingizimu-ntshonalanga ye-Asia, ngakho-ke mude kuneTigris. I-Ewufrathe ingumfula omude kunayo yonke eNingizimu-ntshonalanga ye-Asia, ngakho-ke yinde kuneTigris. Amanzi ayo ahlanzekile ayadingeka ukuphuza, ukugeza, ukupheka kanye neminye imisebenzi eyisisekelo, futhi ibuye ibe umthombo wezinhlanzi.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela konke okudingeka ukwazi ngoMfula i-Ewufrathe, izici nokubaluleka kwawo.

Izici eziyinhloko

umfula i-ewufrathe

I-Ewufrathe ingumfula omude kunayo yonke eNingizimu-ntshonalanga ye-Asia, ngakho-ke yinde kuneTigris. Ilinganiselwa kumakhilomitha angama-2.800 ubude, kusukela ekuzalweni kwayo eTurkey kuze kube yilapho iqedwa e-Iraq, idlula ezingxenyeni ezithile zaseSyria. Umgodi wayo we-hydrological unesandiso esicishe sibe ngu-500.000 km2, ehlanganisa amazwe amathathu kanye nezindawo zaseKuwait naseSaudi Arabia. Umthombo walo akulona ichibi noma iqhwa, kodwa ukuhlangana koMfula iKarasu noMfula iMurat endaweni ephakeme ngamamitha angaphezu kuka-3.000.

Umfula uya eningizimu-mpumalanga uye e-Iraq, enyakatho yeBasra, lapho uhlangana khona neTigris bakhe iShatt al-Arab, egcina ingena ePersian Gulf. Imbalwa imifula eyondlayo; e-Syria, i-Sajur, i-Balikh, ne-Jabur kuphela eyi-tributaries, eyokugcina ibaluleke kakhulu ekunikezeni ukukhishwa okuphezulu koketshezi. Uma isise-Iraq, i-Euphrates ayinayo eminye imingenela.

Umfula uphakelwa kakhulu amanzi emvula kanye nokuncibilika kweqhwa, ngaphezu kwemifula eshiwo ngenhla kanye neminye imifudlana emincane. Iningi lokugeleza kwamanzi livela emvuleni e-Armenian Highlands, nevolumu enkulu kakhulu evame ukwenzeka phakathi kuka-April noMeyi. Isilinganiso sokufuduka singu-356 m3/s futhi esiphezulu singu-2514 m3/s.

Ukwakhiwa kwe-Ewufrathe

i-euphrates kumephu

Umsuka we-Ewufrathe awaziwa. Kakade e-Cretaceous, ukucindezeleka okubizwa ngokuthi i-structural trench kwakhiwa lapho amanzi ayezohlala khona futhi izinsalela zizofakwa ezingqimbeni ezilandelanayo. Ekuqaleni kweMiocene, ichweba elincane lalixhuma i-proto-Medithera nezilwandle zolwandle zesifunda saseMesopotamiya enyakatho-ntshonalanga yeSyria kanye nezifunda eziseduze neTurkey yanamuhla.

Kuwo wonke umlando ibilokhu yaziwa ngokuthi igolide eliluhlaza futhi ibilokhu ingumthombo wokuphila izinkulungwane zeminyaka. Emaphethelweni awo kwakunempucuko abambalwa abayikhumbulayo namuhla. Kusukela wazalelwa eTurkey, umthamo womfula uye wehla unyaka nonyaka.

Kanye nomthelela wawo omkhulu, uMfula iJabr, ube yindawo yamadolobha amaSulumane, amaKhrestu, amaKurdish, amaTurkmen, namaJudeo-Arab. Kule ndawo yilapho idatha yempucuko endala itholakala khona.

Izitshalo nezilwane zoMfula i-Euphrates

I-Ewufrathe, njengeTigris, iyichibi lamanzi elikhethekile ngoba igeleza phakathi nendawo enkulu eyomile. Kodwa-ke, ngenxa yamanzi kanye nomthelela wawo ezindaweni ezimaphakathi zemifula, kwakhiwa indawo evundile eyingxenye yesifunda esingokomlando esaziwa ngokuthi "i-Fertile Crescent", okuma kwayo ucezu olusuka eTigris-Ewufrathe kuya ezingxenyeni zeNayile. eGibhithe, edabula e-Asiriya nasenyakatho kuze kuyofika ogwadule lwaseSiriya nasesifundeni saseSinayi.

Izinzuzo zamanzi zivumela ukusinda kwezitshalo nezilwane eziningi, ezinye zazo ezihlukile. Ngokwesibonelo, ufudu lwe-Euphrates oluthambile luhlala kuphela esigodini saseTigris-Ewufrathe nakweminye imifula embalwa eMpumalanga Ephakathi; ayinawo amapuleti amathambo ngokuvamile aqinisa amagobolondo ofudu. Izinhlanzi ezivame kakhulu emanzini i-carp, eyaziwa nangokuthi i-carps, njenge-Tenuolaaosa ilisha, i-Acanthobrama marmid, i-Alburnus caeruleus, i-Aspius vorax, i-Luciobarbus eocinus, i-Alburnus sellal, i-Barbus grypus, ne-Barbus sharpeyi, nezinye izinhlobo ze-taxa. Izibonelo zifaka i-Glyptothorax cous, Nemacheilus hamwii, kanye ne-Turcinoemacheilus kosswigi. I-Melanopsis nodosa molluscs kungenzeka isabalele e-Iraq.

Lesi sigodi siyikhaya lezinyoni zasemanzini nezingezona ezamanzi, izilwane ezincelisayo, izinambuzane, kanye nezilwane ezihlala emanzini.. I-Basra warbler, i-Iraqi otter, i-pygmy cormorant, i-gosling, i-gerbil yaseMesopotamian kanye ne-otter yaseYurophu ivelele.

Ezindaweni eziningi ezingenhla, kumila izihlahlana nezinhlobo ezithile zezihlahla, njenge-oki, kodwa eduze komngcele weSiriya ne-Iraqi, indawo iyashintsha ibe utshani, obuhlanganisa izitshalo nezihlahlana eziphansi, njengebhulashi notshani. Izihlahla, ama-rushes nezinye izinhlobo zezitshalo zasemanzini zimila ogwini.

Ukubaluleka kwezomnotho koMfula i-Ewufrathe

i-ewufrathe

I-Ewufrathe yayikhona, namanje isekhona, enye yezinsika zamadolobha amaningi aseMpumalanga Ephakathi. Amanzi akhona avundisa inhlabathi eseduze kwezolimo, enikeza ukudla, ikakhulukazi okusanhlamvu okunjengokolweni nebhali, nezihlahla ezinjengemikhiwane. Kudingeka amanzi ahlanzekile okuphuza, ukugeza, ukupheka, nezinye izinto eziyisisekelo, futhi awumthombo wezinhlanzi. Ngenxa yazo zonke lezi zizathu, umfula ubusetshenziswa njengendlela yokuhweba kusukela ezikhathini zasendulo, nakuba amanzi awo engafaneleki emikhunjini emikhulu. Okwamanje ingahamba ngesikebhe ukuya edolobheni laseHit, e-Iraq.

Ukwakhiwa kwezitshalo eziphehla ugesi ngamanzi kuyisici esibaluleke kakhulu emnothweni wesifunda, njengoba kusiza ukuhlinzeka ngogesi emadolobheni ase-Iraq, Syria naseTurkey. Ngokuvamile, ngaphezu kwamaphesenti angama-70 amanzi omfula i-Ewufrathe asetshenziselwa ukukhiqiza ugesi, nisela izitshalo futhi unikeze amanzi okuphuza.

Izinsongo

Amadamu amaningi kanye nezinhlelo zokuchelela eduze komfula, ikakhulukazi enhla nomfula, sekudale izinguquko ekuphumeni kwamanzi, futhi kusatshwa ukuthi amanzi azoncipha kudala ngaphambi kokuthi afinyelele e-Iraq. Kukhona izingxabano mayelana namalungelo amanzi phakathi kweTurkey, iSyria ne-Iraq, futhi isomiso siyakhula, ikakhulukazi ezindaweni zokugcina zomfula. Ngaphezu kwalokho, amaxhaphozi namaxhaphozi eduze kwaseBasra sekucekeleke phansi kusukela ngeminyaka yawo-1990, ngesikhathi owayebusa ngaleso sikhathi uSaddam Hussein. wawavumela ukuba adonse amanzi ukuze aphoqelele ama-Arabhu amaningi ukuba aphume endaweni.

Ukungcoliswa komfula kungenye inkinga. Ukukhishwa kwamanzi angcolile kwezolimo, ezimbonini, nasezindlini kuthinta izinga lamanzi, futhi usawoti emifuleni yase-Iraqi buyanda njengoba umfula wehla ngomfula.

Ngithemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngomfula i-Ewufrathe kanye nezici zawo.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

*

*

  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.