Umehluko phakathi kwe-magma ne-lava

umehluko omkhulu phakathi kwe-magma ne-lava

Njengoba kunezintaba-mlilo eziningi ezisaqhuma emhlabeni, kungenzeka ukuthi enye yazo isaqhuma. Okunye ukuqhuma kwentaba-mlilo kuvame ukwaziwa kangcono ngamandla akho noma umthelela, kanti okunye kungase kunganakwa. Kulezo zintaba-mlilo ezaziwa kakhulu noma ezishiwo lapho iphutha lokubhekisela ku-magma ne-lava njengento efanayo lenziwa njalo, nakuba kungenjalo. Baningi umehluko phakathi kwe-magma ne-lava esizokubona ngokuningiliziwe.

Ngalesi sizathu, sizonikezela lesi sihloko ukukutshela ukuthi umehluko omkhulu phakathi kwe-magma ne-lava uyini kanye nezici zabo eziyinhloko.

yini magma

ukugeleza kwe-lava

Ake siqale lesi sihloko ngokuqonda ukuthi iyini i-magma. I-Magma ichazwa nje njengetshe elincibilikisiwe elisuka maphakathi noMhlaba. Njengomphumela wokuhlanganiswa, i-magma iyingxube yezinto eziwuketshezi, izinhlanganisela eziguquguqukayo kanye nezinhlayiya eziqinile.

Ukwakheka kwe-magma ngokwayo kunzima ukuchaza ngoba kuncike ezintweni ezifana nezinga lokushisa, ingcindezi, amaminerali, njll., kodwa ngokuvamile, singakwazi ukuhlukanisa izinhlobo ezimbili ze-magma ngokusekelwe ekubunjweni kwamaminerali. Ake sibheke lapha:

  • i-mafic magma: Iqukethe ingxenye yama-silicates, ngendlela yama-silicates anothe ngensimbi ne-magnesium, ngokuvamile adalwe ukuncibilika koqweqwe oluwugqinsi lolwandle. Ngokwengxenye yalo, lolu hlobo lwe-magma lubizwa nangokuthi i-basal magma, ebonakala ngokuba nokubukeka okuwuketshezi ngenxa yokuqukethwe kwayo kwe-silica ephansi. Ngokuqondene nezinga lokushisa layo, ngokuvamile liphakathi kuka-900 ºC no-1.200 ºC.
  • Izimpawu ze-Felsic: Uma kuqhathaniswa neyangaphambili, zingama-magmas aqukethe i-silica eningi, ngendlela yama-silicates acebile nge-sodium ne-potassium. Ngokuvamile zinemvelaphi yazo ekuncibilikeni koqweqwe lwezwekazi. Abuye abizwe nge-acidic magma futhi, ngenxa yokuqukethwe kwawo kwe-silica ephezulu, ayanamathela futhi awagelezi kahle. Ngokuqondene nezinga lokushisa le-felsic magma, ngokuvamile liphakathi kuka-650°C no-800°C.

Kuyabonakala ukuthi zombili izinhlobo ze-magma zinezinga lokushisa eliphezulu. Nokho, lapho i-magma ipholile, iyacwebezela, idale amatshe avuthayo. Lokhu kungaba yizinhlobo ezimbili:

  • Plutonic noma rock intrusive lapho i-magma icwebezela ngaphakathi eMhlabeni.
  • I-volcanic noma idwala elichichimayo Yakha lapho i-magma icwebezela phezu komhlaba.

Nokho, i-magma ihlala ingaphakathi kwentaba-mlilo esakhiweni esibizwa ngokuthi i-magma chamber, engeyona into engaphezu komgede ongaphansi komhlaba ogcina udaka oluningi futhi oyindawo ejulile yentaba-mlilo. Ngokuqondene nokujula kwe-magma, kunzima ukukusho, noma ngisho nokubona lawo magumbi ajulile e-magma. Noma kunjalo, ama-magma chambers atholwe ekujuleni phakathi kwekhilomitha elingu-1 kanye ne-10. Ekugcineni, lapho i-magma ikwazi ukukhuphuka isuka ekamelweni le-magma ngokusebenzisa imisele noma oshimula bentaba-mlilo, lokho okubizwa ngokuthi ukuqhuma kwentaba-mlilo kwenzeka.

yini i-lava

umehluko phakathi kwe-magma ne-lava

Ngemva kokufunda okwengeziwe nge-magma, singaqhubekela phambili sixoxa ngokuthi iyini i-lava. I-lava imane nje i-magma efinyelela ebusweni bomhlaba ekuqhumeni kwentaba-mlilo futhi ikhiqize lokho esikwazi njengokugeleza kwe-lava. Njengendlela yokugcina, i-lava yilokho esikubona ekuqhumeni kwentaba-mlilo.

Izici zayo, kokubili ukwakheka kodaka kanye nezinga lokushisa lodaka kuncike ekutheni i-magma injani, nakuba izinga lokushisa lodaka liyahlukahluka phakathi nohambo lwalo emhlabeni. Ikakhulukazi, udaka luchayeka ezintweni ezimbili i-magma engeyona: umfutho womkhathi, onesibopho sokukhulula wonke amagesi akhona ku-magma, kanye nezinga lokushisa elizungezile, elibangela ukuba udaka luphole ngokushesha futhi lukhiqize amadwala.

Uyini umehluko phakathi kwe-magma ne-lava?

i-magma eqhumayo

Uma ukwenze lokhu kuze kube manje, kungenzeka ukuthi uwubonile umehluko phakathi kwe-magma ne-lava. Kunoma yikuphi, lapha sizofingqa kafushane umehluko wabo omkhulu ukuze sicacise ukungabaza okungenzeka. Ngakho-ke uma uzibuza ukuthi i-magma noma i-lava, gcina lokhu okulandelayo engqondweni:

  • Indawo: lokhu mhlawumbe umehluko omkhulu phakathi kwe-magma ne-lava. I-Magma iwudaka olungaphansi komhlaba kanti i-lava yi-magma ekhuphuka futhi ifinyelele phezulu.
  • Ukuchayeka ezintweni: Ngokukhethekile, udaka lwentaba-mlilo luchayeka ezicini ezivamile zomhlaba, njengokucindezela komkhathi nezinga lokushisa elizungezile. Ngokuphambene, i-magma engaphansi kwendawo ayithintwa yilezi zici.
  • Ukwakhiwa Kwedwala: lapho i-magma iphola, iphola kancane futhi ijule, ngaleyo ndlela idale amatshe e-plutonic noma angenayo. Ngokuphambene, lapho udaka luphola, luphola ngokushesha nangaphezulu, lwakhe amadwala entaba-mlilo noma aphuphumayo.

Izingxenye zentaba-mlilo

Lezi yizingxenye ezakha isakhiwo sentaba-mlilo:

I-Crater

Yindawo evulekile phezulu lapho kukhishwa khona udaka, umlotha nazo zonke izinto ze-pyroclastic. Uma sikhuluma ngezinto ze-pyroclastic, sisho konke izingcezwana zamatshe omlilo wentaba-mlilo, amakristalu amaminerali ahlukahlukene, njll. Kunama-crater amaningi anobukhulu obuhlukahlukene kanye nokuma, kodwa avame kakhulu ayindilinga futhi abanzi. Ezinye izintaba-mlilo zinemigodi engaphezu kweyodwa.

Ezinye izingxenye zentaba-mlilo zinembangela yokuqhuma kwentaba-mlilo okunamandla. Kusuka kulokhu kuqhuma lapho singabona khona ukuqhuma kwentaba-mlilo okunamandla ngokwanele ukucekela phansi izingxenye zezakhiwo zazo noma ukuzilungisa.

I-Caldera

Ingenye yezingxenye zentaba-mlilo evame ukudideka ne-crater. Nokho, lapho intaba-mlilo ikhipha cishe zonke impahla evela egumbini layo le-magma ekuqhumeni, kwakheka ukucindezeleka okukhulu. Ama-craters adale ukungazinzi kwezinye izintaba-mlilo eziphilayo ezingenakho ukusekelwa kwesakhiwo. Ukuntuleka kwesakhiwo phakathi kwentaba-mlilo kubangele ukuba inhlabathi idilike phakathi. Ubukhulu bale crater bukhulu kakhulu kune-crater ngokwayo. Khumbula ukuthi akuwona wonke ama-volcano ane-caldera.

Isigaxa sentaba-mlilo

Iwukunqwabelana kodaka oluqinile lapho luphola. Wonke ama-extravolcanic pyroclast akhiqizwa ukuqhuma noma ukuqhuma kwentaba-mlilo ngokuhamba kwesikhathi nawo ayingxenye ye-volcanic cone. Ngokuvumelana ne mangaki ama-rashes onawo empilweni yakho, ubukhulu nobukhulu bezigaxa zingahluka. Izigaxa zentaba-mlilo ezivame kakhulu yi-scoria, i-splash, ne-tuff.

imifantu

Ziyimifantu eyenzeka endaweni lapho i-magma ixoshwa khona. Ziyimifantu noma imifantu enomumo omude ohlinzeka ngokungena komoya ngaphakathi futhi kwenzeka ezindaweni lapho i-magma namagesi angaphakathi akhishelwa khona phezulu. Kwezinye izimo ibangela ukuthi ikhishwe ngokuqhuma ngamapayipi noma ngoshimula, kanti kwezinye izimo ikhishwa ngokuthula ngemifantu esabalele nhlangothi zonke futhi imboze izindawo ezinkulu.

Oshimula namadikhi

Amapayipi amapayipi axhuma i-magma chamber ne-crater. Yilapho intaba-mlilo iqhuma khona udaka. Ngaphezu kwalokho, amagesi akhishwa phakathi nokuqhuma adlula endaweni. Esinye sezici zokuqhuma kwentaba-mlilo ukucindezela. Uma kucatshangelwa ingcindezi kanye nenani lempahla ekhuphuka ngoshimula, siyabona ukuthi idwala lidatshulwe ukucindezela futhi likhishwa kushimula.

Ngokuqondene nama-dikes, angama-igneous noma ama-magmatic formations ane-tubular shapes. Zidlula ezingqimbeni zamatshe eziseduze bese ziqina njengoba izinga lokushisa lehla. Lawa ma-dikes adaleka lapho i-magma ikhuphuka emifantwini emisha noma emifantwini ukuze ihambe ezindleleni zamadwala. Dlula emadwaleni e-sedimentary, metamorphic, kanye ne-plutonic endleleni.

Ngithemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi mayelana nomehluko omkhulu phakathi kwe-magma ne-lava.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.