Umdwebo kaHertzsprung-Russell

umdwebo we-hertzsprung-russell

Olunye lwezikimu ezibonakala kakhulu zokuhlukanisa izakhi emhlabeni wesayensi yithebula lezikhathi. Uma sihlaziya kabanzi futhi ngendlela elula sibona ukuthi i- Umdwebo kaHertzsprung-Russell kufana netafula lezikhathi ezithile, kodwa lezinkanyezi. Ngalo mdwebo singathola iqembu lezinkanyezi futhi sibone lapho lihlukaniswa khona ngokwezici zalo. Ngenxa yalokhu, kube nokwenzeka ukuqhubekisela phambili kakhulu ukubonwa nokuhlukaniswa kwamaqembu ahlukahlukene ezinkanyezi akhona.

Ngakho-ke, sizonikezela le ndatshana ukukutshela zonke izici nokubaluleka komdwebo kaHertzsprung-Russell.

Izici nokusebenza

Umdwebo nezici zeHertzsprung-russell

Sizozama ukuqonda ukuthi umdwebo kaHertzsprung-Russell usebenza kanjani nokuthi uqukethe ini. Izimbazo ezimbili kugrafu zilinganisa izinto ezahlukene. I-eksisi evundlile ilinganisa izikali ezimbili ezingafingqwa zibe munye. Lapho siya ezansi, masilinganise izinga lokushisa lenkanyezi ngama-degree Kelvin kusuka emazingeni okushisa aphakeme kakhulu kuya kwamazinga aphansi kakhulu.

Phezulu sibona okuhlukile. Kunezinombolo zezingxenye ezimakwe ngasinye incwadi: O, B, A, F, G, K, M. Lolu uhlobo lwe-spectral. Kusho ukuthi ngumbala wenkanyezi. Njenge-spectrum ye-electromagnetic, ibanga ukusuka kumbala oluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka kuya kumbala obomvu. Zombili izikali zikhomba okufanayo futhi ziyavumelana ngoba uhlobo lwengqikimba lunqunywa izinga lokushisa lenkanyezi. Njengoba izinga lokushisa kwalo landa, umbala walo nawo uyashintsha. Isuka kobomvu iye kohlaza okwesibhakabhaka, ngaphambi kokuhamba ngamathoni ewolintshi namhlophe. Kulolu hlobo lomdwebo ungaqhathanisa kalula ukuthi yiliphi izinga lokushisa umbala ngamunye inkanyezi onawo ongalingana nawo.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, ku-eksisi ebheke phezulu yomdwebo kaHertzsprung-Russell siyabona ukuthi ilinganisa umqondo ofanayo. Ivezwa ngezilinganiso ezahlukahlukene njengokukhanya. Ohlangothini lwesobunxele ukukhanya kukhalwa ngokuthatha ilanga njengesethenjwa. Ngale ndlela, ukuhlonza okunembile kokukhanya kwezinye izinkanyezi kwenziwa lula futhi ilanga lithathwa njengereferensi. Kulula ukubona ukuthi inkanyezi icwebezela kakhulu yini kunelanga njengoba sinakho kulula uma kuziwa ekukubukeni ngamehlo engqondo. Isilinganiso esifanele sinendlela ethe xaxa yokukala ukukhanya kunenye. Ingalinganiswa ngobukhulu ngokuphelele. Uma sibheka izinkanyezi zasehlathini isikwashi esisodwa ngaphezu kwezinye. Ngokusobala, ezikhathini eziningi lokhu kwenzeka ngoba izinkanyezi zihlangana emabangeni ahlukene hhayi ngoba enye icwebezela kunenye.

Inkanyezi ikhanya

ukukhanya kwezinkanyezi

Lapho sisuka esibhakabhakeni, siyabona ukuthi ezinye izinkanyezi zikhanya ngokugqamile, kepha kwenzeka kuphela ngokombono wethu. Lokhu kubizwa ngokuthi ubukhulu obubonakalayo, yize bunomehluko omncane: ubukhulu obubonakalayo benkanyezi benziwa ngokulungisa inani ukukhanya okungaba nalo ngaphandle komkhathi wethu, hhayi ngaphakathi. Ngale ndlela, ubukhulu obubonakalayo ngeke bumele ukukhanya kwangempela inkanyezi enakho. Ngakho-ke, isikali esifana nalesi esisemfanekisweni kaHertzsprung-Russell asinakusetshenziswa.

Ukuze ukwazi ukukala ukukhanya kwenkanyezi kahle, ubukhulu obukhulu kufanele busetshenziswe. Kungaba ubukhulu obubonakalayo ukuthi inkanyezi ingaba nama-parsecs ayi-10 kude. Izinkanyezi zonke zizoba sebangeni elifanayo, ngakho-ke ubukhulu obubonakalayo benkanyezi bungaguqulwa bube ukukhanya kwangempela kwayo.

Into yokuqala okufanele uyiqaphele lapho ubheka igrafu umugqa omkhulu wokudabula osuka phezulu kwesobunxele uye kwesokudla esingezansi. Kuyaziwa njengokulandelana okuyinhloko futhi kulapho ingxenye enkulu yezinkanyezi, kufaka phakathi ilanga, zihlangana khona. Zonke izinkanyezi zikhiqiza amandla ngokuxuba i-hydrogen ukukhiqiza i-helium ngaphakathi kwazo. Lesi yisici esivamile bonke abanaso futhi okwenza ukukhanya kwabo kuhluke ukuthi lokho abayingxenye yokulandelana okuyinhloko ubukhulu babo. Lokho kusho ukuthi, lapho inkanyezi inesisindo esiningi, inqubo yokuhlangana izosheshe yenze ukuthi yenzeke, ngakho-ke izoba nokukhanya okukhulu nokushisa komhlaba.

Ngakho-ke, kulandela ukuthi izinkanyezi ezinesisindo esikhulu zitholakala ngaphezulu kwesobunxele nangaphezulu ngakho-ke zinamazinga okushisa amaningi nokukhanya okwengeziwe. Lezi yizona imidondoshiya eluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka. Sinezinkanyezi ezinesisindo esiphansi ezingakwesokudla nangaphansi, ngakho-ke zinamazinga okushisa amancane nokukhanya futhi ziyimifino ebomvu.

Izinkanyezi ezinkulu nabaphathi abakhulu bomdwebo kaHertzsprung-Russell

imibala ehlukahlukene yezinkanyezi

Uma sisuka ekulandelaneni okuyinhloko singabona eminye imikhakha ngaphakathi komdwebo. Phezulu kunemidondoshiya nezikhulu ezinkulu. Yize benamazinga okushisa afanayo njengezinye izinkanyezi eziningi ezilandelanayo, banokukhanya okuphezulu kakhulu. Lokhu kungenxa yobukhulu. Lezi zinkanyezi ezinkulu zibonakala ngokushisa izinqolobane zazo ze-hydrogen isikhathi eside, ngakho-ke kuye kwadingeka ukuthi ziqale ukusebenzisa okokubasa okuhlukile njenge-helium emsebenzini wazo. Kungaleso sikhathi lapho ukukhanya kukhanya kusukela uphethiloli awunamandla kangako.

Lesi yisiphetho esiphethe inani elikhulu lezinkanyezi ezitholakala ngokulandelana okuyinhloko. Kuya ngobukhulu abanabo, bangaba bakhulu noma babe-mkhulu kakhulu.

Ngezansi kokulandelana okuyinhloko sinemifishane emhlophe. Indawo yokugcina yezinkanyezi eziningi esizibona esibhakabhakeni iwukuba ngumfitshane omhlophe. Ngalesi sigaba, inkanyezi isebenzisa usayizi omncane kakhulu kanye nobukhulu obukhulu. Njengoba isikhathi sihamba, izimbokodo ezimhlophe ziqhubekela phambili ziye phambili ngakwesokunene nangaphansi komdwebo. Lokhu kungenxa yokuthi ihlala ilahlekelwa ukukhanya nokushisa.

Lezi ngokuyisisekelo yizinhlobo eziyinhloko zezinkanyezi ezivela kule grafu. Kukhona ucwaningo lwamanje oluzama ukugqamisa nokugxila kokunye ukweqisa kwegrafu ukwazi konke ngokujulile.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngomdwebo kaHertzsprung-Russell nezici zawo.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

*

*

  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.