Ulwandle lwaseCortez

Namuhla siya eMelika siye eGulf of California, eyaziwa nangokuthi igama le- Ulwandle lwaseCortez. Kungamanzi amancane amancane atholakala eMexico phakathi kwenhlonhlo yaseBaja California nezifundazwe zaseMexico iSonora neSinaloa. Lolu lwandle seludume kakhulu ngoba lunengcebo yemvelo kanye neziqhingi eziningana ezinezindawo ezivikelwe ezibizwa ngama-World Heritage Sites yi-UNESCO ngo-2005.

Ngakho-ke, sizonikezela le ndatshana ukukutshela zonke izici, ukwakheka, izinhlobonhlobo zezinto eziphilayo kanye nezinsongo zoLwandle lwaseCortez.

Izici eziyinhloko

isimo ulwandle ukusikeka

Ulwandle oluseceleni olutholakala oLwandlekazi iPacific. Ngokuqondile ngasenyakatho-ntshonalanga yogu lwaseMexico. Inesandiso cishe cishe i-160,000-177,000 km2 kanye nomthamo wamanzi cishe we-145,000 km3. Kuyaziwa ngokuba namanzi amahle. Futhi kubukeka njengendawo yemvelo enamanzi afudumele kancane, elungele ukugeza futhi enethoni enhle eluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka. Lokhu kuyenza ibe ngelinye lamabhishi eparadesi afunwa kakhulu kuyo yonke le ndawo. Kunjengokungathi yipharadesi elingokwemvelo ngokuphelele.

Endaweni ebanzi kakhulu yoLwandle lwaseCortez, ububanzi obungamakhilomitha angama-241, kanti endaweni emincane kunamakhilomitha angama-48 kuphela. Ingxenye esenyakatho iyindawo engajule kakhulu, yize kuye kwatholakala ezinye izindawo zokudonsela phansi ezingafinyelela kumamitha ayi-3.000 818 ukujula. Ukujula okulingene kolwandle kuncane, kuba ngamamitha ayi-XNUMX kuphela. Noma kunjalo, akuyona into eguquguqukayo evimbela ukuthuthukiswa kwezinhlobonhlobo zezinto eziphilayo ngezinga elikhulu.

Ukushisa kanye nosawoti

Njengoba inamanzi afudumele impela, ehlobo ingafinyelela emazingeni okushisa angama-24 degrees. Lawa manzi aphelele kubagezi nakubo bonke abavakashi abavakashela lezi zindawo ehlobo. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, ebusika izinga lokushisa lolwandle lehla laya cishe kuma-9 degrees. Isizathu salolu hlu lokushisa olukhulu phakathi kwehlobo nobusika ukujula kwalo okujulile. Ngoba ulwandle olungenamanzi amaningi noma ukujula okuningi, luthinteka kakhulu yizinguquko emazingeni okushisa asemkhathini. Njengoba ingenamanzi amaningi, isikhathi sokuncishiswa siyancipha futhi lezi zigaba ezinkulu zamazinga okushisa zingabonwa phakathi kwenkathi eyodwa nenye.

Emanzini asondele kakhulu olwandle oluvulekile, kungadlula amazinga okushisa angama-24 degrees. Usawoti nawo uyahluka kakhulu kulo lonke ugu. Njengoba kunomphumela wokugeleza kwamanzi anosawoti omncane engxenyeni yogu olusentshonalanga lapho kukhona usawoti ophakeme. Ngokungafani nalokho okwenzeka ngezinye izilwandle ezishisayo, amanzi anosawoti omncane futhi amabanga amaza kakhulu abonakele. Amagagasi anomthelela ngokuya ngendawo esikuyo nomjikelezo wenyanga. Engxenyeni esenyakatho yoLwandle lwaseCortez izinga lamanzi lenyuswe lafinyelela kumamitha ayi-9 ngenxa yamagagasi.

UMfula iColorado wenza i-delta ebanzi ngokwedlulele ekugcineni bese uthululela oLwandle lwaseCortez. Kungashiwo ukuthi lolu lwandle lunoMfula iColorado njengomthombo wawo omkhulu. Esinye sezici ezenze lolu lwandle lwaduma kakhulu ukuthi kuneziqhingi ezingama-922 ngaphakathi kulo, yize eziningi zazo zingahlali muntu. Kodwa-ke, banenqwaba yezimbali nezilwane eziyenza indawo enothile kakhulu ezinhlobonhlobo zezinto eziphilayo.

Ukwakhiwa koLwandle lwaseCortez

iziqhingi zolwandle ukusikeka

Kunemibono eminingi okuqagela ukuthi imvelaphi yoLwandle lwaseCortez. Njengoba ingeke yaziwe ngokuqiniseka okuphelele, kuyaziwa ukuthi ulwandle oluncane uma kuqhathaniswa. Ifomu layo lamanje latholakala ngesikhathi se- Miocene sekwephuzile. Lokho, kuyakwenza cishe iminyaka eyizigidi ezingama-4-6. Eminye imibono eqinisekisa imvelaphi yalolu lwandle ikhombisa ukuguqulwa kwe-akhawunti ezikhathini eziningi. Ngemuva kokulungiswa okuningi kangaka, kungakhiwa ngezinqubo ezithile ze-tectonic.

Izinqubo zokwakheka komhlaba ezaveza ukwakheka kwalolu lwandle zenzeka cishe eminyakeni eyizigidi ezingama-60 edlule. Kungaleso sikhathi lapho amapuleti ama-tectonic aseNyakatho Melika nasePacific ayetholakala kupuleti lelo elalilahlekile namuhla. Leli puleti lithola igama likaFarallón. Ekuqaleni kwenkathi yeMesozoic leli cwecwe elaziwa ngegama likaFarallón laqala inqubo yokwehliswa. Futhi ukuthi yaqala ukucwila ngaphansi konqenqema olusentshonalanga lwepuleti laseNyakatho Melika futhi yaba neqhaza ekwakhiweni kwezintaba nezintaba-mlilo. Yilapho kwazalelwa khona iningi leziqhingi ezingolwandle lwaseCortez.

Izinhlobonhlobo zezinto eziphilayo oLwandle lwaseCortez

Njengoba sishilo ngaphambili, ulwandle olunengcebo enkulu yezinhlobonhlobo zezinto eziphilayo. Yize incane ngosayizi futhi inendawo eyodwa yokungena yamanzi, ingenye yezilwandle ezifundwa kakhulu emhlabeni. Futhi ibizwa ngokuthi yi-"aquarium yomhlaba" ngenxa yengcebo enkulu yezitshalo nezilwane. Kulinganiselwa ukuthi ifaka izinhlobo zezinhlanzi ezingaba ngu-900, ezingama-90 zazo zikhona, izinhlobo ezingaphezu kwezingu-170 zezinyoni zasolwandle futhi cishe ingxenye eyodwa kwezintathu yazo zonke izinhlobo zezilwane ezincelisayo zasolwandle emhlabeni. Ngaphezu kwalokhu, singasho ukuthi kukhona nezinhlobo ezi-5 zofudu ezidala noma ezifuna ukudla osebeni lwayo.

Lokhu kwenza ulwandle lubhekwe njengenye yezinto ezinkulu kakhulu ekunotheni kwezinhlobonhlobo zezinto eziphilayo. Ungathola ama-vaquitas asolwandle, izimfudu ze-leatherback, izimfudu eziluhlaza, ama-giant squid, ama-sardine, oshaka be-whale, amahhashi asePacific, ama-totoabas, amaxoxo, izimfudu zasolwandle lomnqumo, izinhlanzi zaseCalifornia nezimfudu ze-loggerhead, phakathi kwezinye izilwane.

Ngokuqondene nezimbali, futhi icebile impela. Inezimbali ezihlukile ngaphansi kwamanzi. Kunezinhlobo eziningi zamakhorali, i-plankton ne-algae macroscopic. Kulinganiselwa ukuthi bahlala ezinhlotsheni ezingaba ngu-62 zobulembu obuncane kanye nezinhlobo ezingama-626 zama-algae amakhulu. Enye yezindawo ezinhle kakhulu zingabonakala kusuka ogwini. Futhi ukuthi ishintsha izimo ngokungafani okungajwayelekile phakathi kwezimila kahle kakhulu ezingwadule nezimila zemihlume ezakhiwe ngesihlabathi nosawoti, ikakhulukazi. Cishe cishe izinhlobo ezithile zezitshalo ezingama-696 ezinemithambo yemvelo lapho.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngoLwandle lwaseCortez.


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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.