Ukushisa okuqondile kwamanzi

ukubaluleka kokushisa okuthile kwamanzi

Esinye sezici eziyisisekelo ezisetshenziswe ku-physics nakumakhemikhali ukushisa okuthile. Ngokuqondile, i- ukushisa okuqondile kwamanzi kuyadingeka kakhulu cishe kunoma yiluphi uhlobo lokuhlola. Into yokuqala okufanele uyenze ukwazi ukuthi yini ukushisa okuthile futhi wazi ukubaluleka kokwazi leli nani emanzini.

Ngakho-ke, sizonikezela le ndatshana ukukutshela konke odinga ukukwazi mayelana nokushisa kwamanzi okuthile nokubaluleka kwawo.

Kuyini ukushisa okuqondile

i-mercury

Ukuze into ikhuphule izinga layo lokushisa, kudingeka inani elithile lamandla. Leli nani lamandla kumele linikezwe ngendlela yokushisa. Lokhu yilokho okwaziwa njengokushisa okuthile. Elinye igama elaziwa ngalo amandla okushisa athile. Yilelo nani elisenza sikwazi ukuchaza ukuthi kungani isipuni sokhuni singafudunyezwa kancane kancane nangokuqhubekayo kunesipuni sengqondo. Kuchaza nesizathu sokuthi kungani sisebenzisa izinto ezithile ukuze sikwazi ukwakha amathuluzi nezitsha ezithile ngokusetshenziswa okuphakanyiselwe ukunikezwa.

Ngalokhu sichaza ku-physics njengokushisa okuthile inani lamandla okumele adluliselwe kuyunithi lezinto ukukhuphula izinga lokushisa kwalo ngezinga elilodwa. Ukushisa okuqondile kwamanzi cishe kusetshenziswa njalo njengesibonelo. Lokho kusho ukuthi, inani lamandla adingekayo ukukwazi ukushisa amanzi ngezinga elilodwa ekushiseni kwawo. Siyazi ukuthi uma ama-joule amandla angu-4182 edluliswa ekhilogreni lamanzi elisezingeni lokushisa kwasendaweni, lelo nani lamanzi lizokhuphula izinga lokushisa kwalo ngezinga elilodwa. Kulokhu singathola inani lokuthi ukushisa okuqondile kwamanzi kulingana nama-joule angama-4182 ngekhilogri nangeziqu.

Amayunithi wokushisa kwamanzi athile

ukushisa okuqondile kwamanzi

Siyazi ukuthi ukushisa okuqondile kwamanzi kungabonakaliswa ngamayunithi ahlukene. Ngokuvamile Amayunithi wamandla, isisindo kanye nokushisa kufanele kuboniswe ukukhombisa ngokuphelele. Uhlelo lwamazwe omhlaba lweyunithi sine-joule ngekhilogremu eyodwa nobunzima obuyikelvin okuyizinga lokushisa. Kwezinye izinto leli nani lihlukile ngoba ukushisa kwamanzi okuqondile kusetshenziswa njengesisekelo noma ireferensi yawo wonke amanye amanani. Isibonelo, ukushisa okuthile kwensimbi kungama-joule angama-502 ngekhilogremu kanye no-kelvin. Lokhu kusho ukuthi ama-joule angu-502 wamandla azodingeka kwikhilogremu yensimbi ukukhuphula izinga lokushisa ngu-kelvin oyedwa.

Enye indlela yokuveza ukushisa kwamanzi noma enye into ikwezinye izingxenye. Isibonelo, ungasetha amakhalori ngegramu ngayinye kanye nama-degree Celsius. Siphinda isibonelo sensimbi. Kulokhu, ukushisa okuthile kuzoba amakholori ayi-0.12 ngegremu ngalinye nama-degree Celsius. Lokhu kusho ukuthi amakholori angu-0.12 wamandla ayadingeka ngendlela yokushisa ukuze akhuphule izinga lokushisa ngezinga elilodwa legramu lensimbi.

Izici eziyinhloko

Ngaphambi kokungena ngokugcwele ekushiseni okuqondile kwamanzi, kubalulekile ukwazi kahle ukuthi ziyini izici zayo. Kuyindlela ye- impahla ebonakalayo engancikile ebuningini bento leyo. Lokhu kusho ukuthi, ngaphandle kwenani lezinto esinazo, amandla afanayo ayadingeka ukukhuphula izinga lokushisa. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, ukushisa okuthile kungahluka emazingeni okushisa ahlukene. Lokhu kusho ukuthi inani lamandla esizodinga ukulidlulisa ukuze sikwazi ukukhuphula izinga lokushisa ngezinga elilodwa alifani okufanele lidluliselwe ekamelweni lokushisa okungu-100 degrees noma ku-0 degrees. Isibonelo esihle salokhu ukuncika kokushisa kokushisa okuthile kwamanzi. Siyabona ukuthi emazingeni okushisa ahlukene ukushisa okuqondile kwamanzi kuyahlukahluka.

Singasho ukuthi yimpahla izinto ezinayo nokuthi kuhlobene nenani lamandla elithathayo ukwandisa izinga lokushisa. Esinye sezici eziphawuleka kakhulu amanzi anakho ukuthi anokushisa okuphezulu okuphezulu. Lokhu kusho ukuthi ukuze kwandiswe izinga lokushisa lamanzi badinga ukuthola ubushushu obuningi ngeyunithi ngayinye.

Ukushisa okuqondile kwamanzi kwehlukile kuye ngokuthi ivolumu igcinwa ingaguquguquki noma ingcindezi igcinwa ingaguquguquki. Lokhu kuguquka kubuye kusethe amanye amanani ngokuya ngalezi zimo. Uma sikhuluma ngevolumu yento sibhekisa ku- ukushisa okuqondile kwe-isochoric. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, uma sibhekisa kwingcindezi engapheli sikhomba lokho ukushisa okuqondile kwe-isobaric. Uma sizijwayeza ukuzijwayeza, lo mehluko wenziwa ikakhulu lapho kusebenza amagesi hhayi oketshezi.

Ukubaluleka kokushisa okuqondile kwamanzi

imbiza yamanzi abilayo

Siyazi ukuthi ngaphansi kwezimo ezijwayelekile ikhilogremu lamanzi lidinga i-1 kilocalorie ukuze izinga lokushisa likhuphuke ngo-1 ºC, okusho ukuthi, 1 kcal / ° C • kg, elingana no-4184 J / (K • kg) ohlelweni lwamazwe omhlaba. Siyazi ukuthi lokhu kushisa okukhethekile kuphakeme kakhulu kunanoma iyiphi enye into ejwayelekile. Uma sibeka umcengezi ngamanzi elangeni lonke ehlobo, ungashiswa futhi ufudumale. Noma kunjalo, Ngeke ikhuphule izinga lokushisa ngokwanele ukubilisa noma ukupheka amaqanda kuyo. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, uma sibeka insimbi, kungenzeka ukuthi ngeke ukwazi ukuyithatha ngoba izinga layo lokushisa lizobe liphakeme kakhulu ukuthi lizoshisa.

Ukushisa okuqondile kwamanzi kungenxa yezibopho ze-hydrogen ezenziwa ngama-molecule wamanzi. Luhlobo lokuxhumana phakathi kwama-molecule oluqine kangangokuba kudingekile ukuhlinzeka amandla amaningi ukubenza badlidlize futhi bandise izinga lokushisa kwabo. Ama-Hydrogen bond anamandla amakhulu futhi kudinga amandla ukuze ihambe. Ngakho-ke, ukugcina amanzi ebila kudinga ukunikezela amandla ngokuqhubekayo.

Ukubaluleka enakho kudluliswa nakwimozulu yezulu. Iqiniso lokuthi amanzi analo mandla aphezulu okushisa minyaka yonke iqiniso elinqunyelwe uma kungenjalo impahla ebalulekile esiza ukulawula isimo sezulu nesimo sezulu jikelele. Ngokuba nalokhu kushisa okuphezulu okuphezulu, siyazi ukuthi imizimba emikhulu yamanzi ibhekele ukulawula ukushintshashintsha okukhulu kwezinga lokushisa emhlabeni wonke. Uma kungenjalo, isimo sezulu cishe besingeke sibe nezici ezifana nalezi esizaziyo namuhla.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngokushisa okuqondile kwamanzi nokubaluleka kwawo.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.