Ukuqothulwa kwePermian

ukuqothulwa kwephemi

Siyazi ukuthi kuso sonke isikhathi se-geological esidlulile emhlabeni wethu kube nokuqothulwa okuningi. Namuhla sizokhuluma nge Ukuqothulwa kwePermian. Ngenye yezehlakalo ezi-5 eziyinhlekelele iplanethi yethu eye yabhekana nazo kuwo wonke umlando wayo.

Ngakho-ke, sizonikezela le ndatshana kukho konke odinga ukukwazi mayelana nokuqothulwa kwePermian nokuthi yaba yini imiphumela yayo.

Ukuqothulwa kwePermian

izimbangela zokuqothulwa

Yize iningi labantu likholelwa ukuthi ukuqothulwa kwama-dinosaurs kwakukubi kakhulu, akunjalo. Kunezifundo eziningi ezenziwe ngemininingwane eqoqwe ngochwepheshe kule ndawo, futhi baqinisekisa ukuthi ukuqothulwa kwesisindo kwakusePermian ngasekupheleni naseTriassic yokuqala. Isizathu sokuthi sithathwa njengesinye esibucayi kakhulu kungenxa yokuthi cishe zonke izinhlobo zokuphila emhlabeni zinyamalale.

Kulokhu kuqothulwa ngaphezu kwama-90% azo zonke izinhlobo zezinto eziphilayo emhlabeni kwasulwa. Kubalulekile ukuqaphela ukuthi iplanethi yethu yayiphila ngaleso sikhathi. Iqiniso lokuthi kunezinhlobo eziningi zezilwane kanye nempilo ebikhula selitholakele ngenxa yezifundo zezinsalela. Ngenxa yokuqothulwa kwePermian, iplanethi yomhlaba yayiyincithakalo. Izimo ezingathandeki umhlaba owazakhela zona zazisho ukuthi kungaphila izinhlobo ezithile kuphela.

Lokhu kushabalala kwaba yindawo yokuqala ukuzalwa kabusha kwezinye izinhlobo ezazilawula iminyaka elandelayo yomhlaba futhi kwakungamadinosaurs aziwayo. Lokho wukuthi, ngenxa yokuqothulwa kwePermian, sinama-dinosaurs.

Izimbangela zokuqothulwa kwePermian

intaba-mlilo enkulu

Ukuqothulwa okwenzekile ngasekupheleni kwePermian nasekuqaleni kukaTriassic kube yindaba yokufunda ngososayensi abaningi iminyaka eminingi. Izifundo eziningi zinikele ngemizamo yazo yokuthola imbangela eqale lolu hlobo lokucekela phansi. Ngokulandela okwenzeke kudala akukho bufakazi obuthize obutholakele obufakazela imbangela yalesi sehlakalo esiyinhlekelele. Ungaba nemibono kuphela esungulwe kancane kancane ocwaningweni olujulile nolunembeza ngezinsalela ezitholakele.

Esinye sezizathu ezinkulu okukholakala ukuthi imbangela yokuqothulwa kwePermian yenzeka ngenxa yomsebenzi omkhulu wentaba-mlilo. Njengoba izintaba-mlilo zazisebenza kakhulu, zakhipha amagesi amaningi anobuthi emkhathini. La magesi adale ushintsho olukhulu ekwakhekeni komkhathi okwenza izinhlobo zezilwane zingakwazi ukuphila.

Umsebenzi wentaba-mlilo yayishubile ikakhulukazi kwenye yezindawo zesifunda saseSiberia. Le ndawo icebile edwaleni lentaba-mlilo namuhla. Ngesikhathi sePermian, le ndawo yonke yahlangabezana nokuqhuma okulandelanayo okwathatha iminyaka eyisigidi. Kumele ucabange nje ngentaba-mlilo ngentshiseko iminyaka eyisigidi ukuqonda ukuthi umkhathi ungashintsha ukwakheka kwawo futhi ube yingozi.

Konke ukuqhuma kwentaba-mlilo akugcinanga ngokukhipha inani lodaka, kodwa futhi namagesi. Amagesi lapho sithola khona isikhutha. Yonke le micimbi yayanele ukubanga ushintsho olukhulu lwesimo sezulu, olwandise amazinga okushisa omhlaba emhlabeni.

Ubuso bomhlaba kwakungebona bodwa obathintwa ukuqhuma kwentaba-mlilo. Imizimba yamanzi nayo yathola umonakalo omkhulu ekungcoleni okukhulu ngenxa yamazinga ezinto ezithile ezinobuthi ezikhishwa ezintabeni. Phakathi kwalezi zinto ezinobuthi sithola i-mercury.

 Umthelela wemeteorite

ukuqothulwa okukhulu kwepermian

Enye yezinkolelo-mbono ezisungulelwe ukuchaza ukuqothulwa kwePermian yilelo lomthelela wemeteorite. Ukuwa kwe-meteorite mhlawumbe kuyimbangela ekhonjwe kakhulu kubo bonke ochwepheshe ngale ndaba. Kunobufakazi begazi lokuthi kwaba nokushayisana kwesibhakabhaka esikhulu esashaya umhlaba. Lapho le meteorite enkulu ihlangana nomhlaba, yaveza izinxushunxushu nokubhujiswa okusabalele. Ngemuva kwalokhu kushayisana, kwaba nokuncipha kwempilo isiyonke yomhlaba.

Ezwenikazi lase-Antarctica, intaba enkulu cishe cishe ngamakhilomitha-skwele angama-500 ububanzi. Okusho ukuthi, uma i-asteroid ishiya umgodi wobukhulu obungaka, kungenzeka ukuthi ilinganise okungenani amakhilomitha angama-50 ububanzi. Ngale ndlela, siyabona ukuthi umthelela omkhulu wemeteorite ungaba imbangela yokunyamalala kwezinto eziningi eziphilayo emhlabeni.

Ososayensi abafanayo abafunda ngezimbangela zokuqothulwa kwePermian yilabo abaqinisekisa futhi bathi ukuthi umthelela wale asteroid ukhulule ibhola elikhulu lomlilo. Leli bhola lomlilo elikhulu likhiqize imimoya ngejubane cishe lamakhilomitha angama-7000 ngehora. Ngaphezu kwalokho, kukhona ukuvusa ukunyakaza kwama-telluric okufinyelele yeqa izikali zokulinganisa ezaziwayo njengamanje. Kumele kucatshangwe ukuthi ukushayisana kohlobo lwe-meteorite olufana nalokhu esikushoyo bekungenza ukukhululwa kwamandla angaba yizigidi eziyizinkulungwane eziyi-megatons. Ngakho-ke, umthelela we-meteorite emhlabeni wethu wawungenye yezimbangela ezamukelwa kakhulu zokuqothulwa kwesisindo samaPermian.

Ukukhishwa kweMethane hydrate

Esinye isizathu esenza ukuthi ukuqothuka kwePermian kukholakala ukuthi kuqalile kungenxa yokukhishwa kwama-methane hydrate. Siyazi ukuthi amadiphozi amakhulu e-methane hydrate aqinile angatholakala olwandle. Njengoba izinga lokushisa kweplanethi landa, nokushisa kwezilwandle kwanda. Ngenxa yomsebenzi wentaba-mlilo noma ukushayisana kwe-asteroid, kubangele ukuthi amazinga okushisa omhlaba wonke anyuke. Ngenxa yalokhu kwanda okuncane ekushiseni kwamanzi, i-methane hydrate yancibilika. Lokhu kubangela ukuthi inani elikhulu legesi le-methane likhishelwe emoyeni.

Kumele kucatshangwe ukuthi i-methane ingugesi obamba ukushisa onamandla amakhulu okukhuphula izinga lokushisa, ngoba unamandla amakhulu okugcina ukushisa. Kukhona ukukhuluma ngokunyuka cishe kwamadigri ayi-10 ngokwesilinganiso emhlabeni jikelele.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngembangela yokuqothulwa kwePermian nokubaluleka kwayo.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.