ukuqhuma kwe-strombolian

bagumbuqela intende

Uma izintaba-mlilo ziqhuma zikwenza ngezindlela ezahlukene. Kunezici ezithile ezenza ukuqhuma kube nezici nemiphumela ehlukene. Kulesi simo, sizogxila ohlotsheni lokuqhuma kwe-strombolian. Intaba-mlilo yaseLa Palma ine-a ukuqhuma kwe-strombolian. Kusho ukuthini lokhu?

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela konke odinga ukukwazi mayelana kuqhuma Strombolian, izici zayo, umsuka kanye nemiphumela.

Kuyini ukuqhuma kwe-strombolian

izinhlobo zokuqhuma kwe-strombolian

Ukuqhuma kwe-Strombolian ukuqhuma kwentaba-mlilo okuqhumayo okushintshana phakathi komsebenzi oqinile nokuzolile. Kuwukuqhuma okuvamile kwezintaba-mlilo eCanary Islands, njenge intaba-mlilo esiqhingini saseLa Palma, elithathela igama layo kusukela entaba-mlilo iStromboli eziqhingini ezincane zase-Aeolian eduze kwaseSicily, e-Italy.

Ukuqhuma kokuqhuma kwe-Strombolian kukhiqizwa ukunqwabelana kwamagesi akhishwa yi-magma ngokwayo njengoba ikhuphuka. Izintaba-mlilo zaseStrombolia zikhafula igesi, umlotha, udaka lwentaba-mlilo, namabhomu entaba-mlilo ngamandla kangangokuthi zidubula amapayipi entaba-mlilo amakhilomitha ambalwa ukuphakama.

Izinga lokushisa le-magma kulokhu kuqhuma ngokuvamile liba ngama-degree Celsius ayinkulungwane.

Izinhlobo zokuqhuma kweziqhumane

ukuqhuma kwe-strombolian

Isiqalo sethu ukuthi izintaba-mlilo ziyinqubo yemvelo eyinkimbinkimbi eqala ekujuleni koMhlaba, lapho i-magma yakheka engutsheni, iqhubeka nokukhuphuka ngoqweqwe, futhi ikhishelwe ngaphandle. I-Magma iyingxube yamatshe ancibilikisiwe, amagesi, noketshezi oluvela ngaphakathi eMhlabeni. Lapho i-magma ifinyelela phezulu, igama layo liba udaka. Akuwona wonke ama-magma afanayo, ngakho-ke, udaka oluvela ezintaba-mlilo alufani.

Ukuqhuma kwentaba-mlilo kunamazinga ahlukahlukene okuqhuma. Eqinisweni, izazi zentaba-mlilo zisebenzisa isikali esibizwa ngokuthi i-Volcanic Explosivity Index (VIE) ukuze zilinganise amandla entaba-mlilo. Kukhona ama-octave kulesi sikali.

Kukho konke ukuqhuma kweziqhumane, amagesi nama-pyroclastics akhishelwe emkhathini ngobudlova, kodwa ngaphakathi kwalesi sigaba, amanye anobudlova kakhulu kunezinye. Izilwane ezibizwa ngokuthi i-Strombolians zingacekeli phansi ukuqhuma kweziqhumane uma sicabanga ukuthi zingaveza ukuqhuma okuyinhlekelele, njengalokho kwentaba-mlilo yaseKrakatoa ngo-1883, eyacekela phansi iqoqo leziqhingi zase-Indonesia ezinegama elifanayo.

Okunye ukuqhuma kweziqhumane yilokhu:

  • I-Vulcan: le nto ibukeka kakhulu kunokuqhuma kwe-Strombolian, ngakho-ke ingcindezi iyanda ekamelweni le-magma njengoba i-magma iphakama.
  • Peleana: eyakhiwe ngezinto ezibonakala kakhulu kunokuqhuma kwe-Strombolian, ebonakala ngama-avalanche omlotha ogqamile noma ukugeleza kwe-pyroclastic kanye nokwakheka kwezindlu ze-lava nama-pumice cones.
  • I-Plinian: Ziqhuma kakhulu, zinezibonakaliso ezinodlame kakhulu, ukuxoshwa kwenqwaba yamagesi entaba-mlilo, udoti nomlotha ovela ku-magma onokwakheka kwe-asidi. Amagesi entabamlilo eliwakhafulayo anobuthi obukhulu futhi udaka lucebile ngama-silicates. Yathola igama layo ngokuhlonishwa kukaPliny Omdala, owashona ngo-AD 79. C. lapho iNtaba iVesuvius iqhuma futhi ingcwaba iPompeii. Kwakuwukuqhuma kokuqala okunjalo okuchazwe futhi kwenziwa umshana kaPliny Omdala uPliny Omncane.

Izingozi ze-Strombolian Rash

ukuqubuka kwesundu

Kunezinhlobo ezahlukene zokuqhuma kwentaba-mlilo, kuye ngokuqhuma kwentaba-mlilo nokugeleza kwentaba-mlilo.

Isici sentaba-mlilo iStrombolian siwukuthi ukuqhuma akwenzeki, ngokuvamile akubi nodlame kakhulu, futhi udaka lwentaba-mlilo aluqhumi ngokuqhubekayo. Izintaba-mlilo zikhulula i-pyroclastic material (ingxube eshisayo yegesi, umlotha, nezingcezu zamatshe) emifantwini engaphezulu komhlaba. Ubude bayo bungahluka kusuka emavikini ambalwa kuya ezinyangeni ezimbalwa.

Izintaba-mlilo ze-Strombolian ngokuvamile zifinyelela ukuphakama okungafika kumamitha angu-1.000 futhi zikhafule ngaphezu kwama-cubic metres angu-10.000 wezinto ezibonakalayo. Ngaphezu kwama-strombolians, ochwepheshe bahlukanisa ezinye izinhlobo ezinhlanu zokuqhuma. Umsebenzi wentaba-mlilo oyingozi kakhulu intaba-mlilo yaseHawaii, ene-pyroclastic encane kakhulu, ayinakho ukuqhuma, futhi udaka luwuketshezi impela. Eyesibili i-vulcanian, ikhipha amafu amakhulu we-pyroclastic material kanye nenani elikhulu lomlotha wentaba-mlilo.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, ukuqhuma kwe-Plinian kungenye yezinto ezimangalisa kakhulu (futhi ezesabekayo), ngokuqhuma okunodlame kakhulu, umlotha omningi nodaka olunamathelayo oluningi. I-Magma ingabhidliza iziqongo zezintaba futhi idale ama-craters. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, lezo lavas zohlobo lwePeleano zaqina ngokushesha, zakha ipulaki ku-crater. Ekugcineni, ukuqhuma kwe-hydrovolcanic kwenzeka ngenxa yokusebenzisana kwe-magma namanzi.

izici ezijulile

Ukuqhuma okukodwa ngokuvamile kukhipha amavolumu e-pyroclastic asuka ku-0,01 kuya ku-50 cubic metres. ngesivinini esishintshashintshayo sokukhipha esisuka ku-104 siye ku-106 kg/s. Uma umsebenzi wokuqhuma uqhubeka isikhathi eside, izinto eziwugqinsi esifundeni esiseduze ngokuvamile zakha ama-cinder cones angafinyelela ubude obungamamitha angamakhulu amaningana. I-lava spatter, idiphozithi yamabhomu kanye namabhulokhi ngokuvamile kungabonakala eduze kwamapayipi kanye nokufaka umlotha ezindaweni ezikude.

Ngenxa yezinguquko zesikhashana zamaphethini okuqhuma nokuhlukahluka kokuhlakazeka komlotha wentaba-mlilo, amalungu aseduze nakude wediphozithi ye-Cascade angase futhi abonise idwala elibikiwe, elinemibhede yomlotha wentaba-mlilo namatshe, kuyilapho izingxenye ezisafufusa zibonisa amabhamuza egesi kanye nezinguquko kukristalu.

Ukuqhuma kwe-Strombolian okuhlala isikhathi esifushane okufunzwa i-basaltic magma, njengaleyo eyabonwa e-Llaima volcano ngo-May 1994, yakhafula umlotha wentaba-mlilo omuhle ukuze kwakheke ukwakheka kwe-pyroclastic okuhlanganisa umlotha omnyama kanye ne-angular morphologies, ingilazi, amakristalu e-plagioclase, i-olivine ne-oxides. titanium.

Njengesibonelo sokuqhuma kwe-Stromboli okwaqhubeka kwakha ama-cinder cones ngokuhamba kwesikhathi, icala eliyisakhiwo sodumo nelibhalwe kahle eNingizimu Melika ukuqhuma kukaKhisimusi ka-1988-89. Kukhona ososayensi abafunda kabanzi ukuvela komjikelezo oqhumayo kanye nezici zezinto ezikhishiwe, lokhu okulandelayo okuhambisana: 1) umlotha wentaba-mlilo owakhiwe ikakhulukazi i-scoria engavamile enengxenye ephansi yamakristalu; 2) i-subspherical to irregular 3) Ama-Bombas ngisho ne-metric, andise eduze (<2km) emiseleni, nge-fusiform, i-subspherical eyisicaba, ama-braided, kanye namamorphologies angavamile futhi ayisicaba; 4) Mancane kakhulu amabhlogo wezinhlamvu zengozi kanye nezisekeli.

Ngithemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi mayelana nokuqhuma kwe-Strombolian nezici zako.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.