Ukuguquka kwe-evapotranspiration

Ukuguqulwa kwesitshalo

Impela wake wezwa ngomkhuba we ukuphefumula lapho kukhulunywa ngezitshalo. Ngempela, kuyinto eyenzeka lapho izitshalo zilahlekelwa amanzi ezicutshini zazo ngenxa yezimo ezimbili ezisebenza zizonke: ukuhwamuka ngakolunye uhlangothi nomjuluko kolunye. I-Evapotranspiration ingachazwa njengokucatshangelwa ngokuhlanganyela kwalezi zinqubo ezimbili ngasikhathi sinye.

Kulokhu okuthunyelwe sizokukhombisa ukuthi le ndlela isebenza kanjani nokubaluleka kwayo ku umjikelezo wamanzi.

Kuyini i-evapotranspiration

Ibhalansi ye-Hydric

Siqala ngokuchaza kahle izinqubo ezenziwa ngasikhathi sinye yilabo esibashoyo. Inqubo yokuqala ukuhwamuka. Kuyinto ebonakalayo leyo kuphawula ukuguquka kwesimo samanzi sisuke kuketshezi kuya emswakeni. Lokhu kufaka nezinqubo ze-sublimation ezenzeka lapho amanzi esesimweni seqhwa noma seqhwa bese eya ngqo kumhwamuko ngaphandle kokudlula esimweni soketshezi.

Ukuhwamuka kwenzeka ebusweni bomhlabathi nasezimileni lapho nje kuqala ukuna kwezulu. Ngenxa yamazinga okushisa, isenzo semisebe yelanga noma umoya, amaconsi amanzi abekade ehlehlisile agcina eshabalala. Enye indawo lapho ukuhwamuka kwenzeka khona ezindaweni zamanzi ezifana nemifula, amachibi nezindawo zokugcina amanzi. Kubuye kwenzeke kusuka emhlabathini ngamanzi angenisiwe. Se ivame ukuhwamuka isuke endaweni ejulile iye phezulu. Lawa ngamanzi angene nje noma ezindaweni zokukhipha.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, sinenqubo yokujuluka. Kuyinto yezinto eziphilayo ezenzeka ezitshalweni. Kuyinqubo abalahlekelwa ngayo amanzi bese bewathela emkhathini. Lezi zitshalo zithatha amanzi ngezimpande ezisuka emhlabathini. Ingxenye yala manzi isetshenziselwa ukukhula kwabo nemisebenzi ebalulekile futhi enye ingxenye badlulela emkhathini.

Izilinganiso nokusetshenziswa

Isiteshi sokulinganisa i-Evapotranspiration

Njengoba lezi zimo ezimbili kunzima ukuzikala ngokwehlukana, zenzeka ndawonye njenge-evapotranspiration. Ezimweni eziningi lokhu kufundwa, udinga ukwazi inani lamanzi alahlekile emkhathini nokuthi inqubo elahlekile ngayo ayinandaba. Le mininingwane iyadingeka ukwenza amabhalansi amanzi enani lamanzi eliwayo maqondana nalokho okulahlekile. Umphumela uzoba yimali esele enhle, uma amanzi eqongelela noma sinenqwaba yemithombo, noma engemihle, uma silahlekelwa amanzi esiwaqoqile noma silahlekelwa yimithombo.

Kulabo abafunda ukuvela kwamanzi, lezi zibhalansi zamanzi zibaluleke kakhulu. Lezi zifundo zigxile ekwandisweni kwemithombo yamanzi yendawo. Lokho kusho ukuthi, wonke amanzi anethwa yimvula akhishwe emanzini alahlekile nge-evapotranspiration, azoba umthamo wamanzi atholakalayo ukuthi sizoba nakho cishe. Vele, kufanele futhi sicabangele inani lamanzi angena ngokuya ngohlobo lomhlabathi noma ubukhona bamanzi.

I-Evapotranspiration ingukuhlukahluka okubalulekile emkhakheni wesayensi ye-agronomic. Kubhekwa njengento ebalulekile uma kubhekwa izidingo zamanzi izitshalo ezinazo ukuze zikhule kahle. Kunezindlela eziningi zezibalo ezisetshenziselwa ukwazi idatha edingekayo ye-evapotranspiration nezilinganiso zamanzi.

Iyunithi elinganiswa ngayo ingama-mm. Ukukunikeza umbono, usuku olushisayo lwasehlobo luyakwazi ukuhwamuka phakathi kuka-3 no-4 mm. Kwesinye isikhathi, uma izindawo ezilinganisiwe ziningi ezimileni, umuntu angakhuluma nangama-cubic metres ehektheleni ngalinye lomhlaba.

Izinhlobo ze-evapotranspiration

I-Evapotranspiration kwezolimo

Ukuze ukwazi ukuhlukanisa kahle idatha kubhalansi yamanzi, idatha ye-evapotranspiration ihlukaniswe ngezindlela eziningi. Esokuqala i-evapotranspiration engaba khona (i-ETP). Le mininingwane iyona ekhombisa kithi ukuthi yini ebingakhiqizwa ngomswakama womhlabathi futhi ikhava yezimila ibisesimweni esifanelekile. Lokho wukuthi, inani lamanzi ebelizohwamuka futhi liphume uma izimo zezemvelo bezikulungele.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi esinakho i-evapotranspiration yangempela (ETR). Kulokhu, silinganisa inani langempela lamanzi i-evapotranspires ngokuya ngezimo ezikhona esimweni ngasinye.

Kulezi zincazelo kusobala ukuthi i-ETR ingaphansi noma ilingana ne-ETP. Lokhu kuzokwenzeka ngo-100% wesikhathi. Isibonelo, ehlane, i-ETP icishe ibe ngu-6mm / ngosuku. Kodwa-ke, i-ETR ayinaqanda, ngoba awekho amanzi e-evapotranspire. Ngezinye izikhathi, zombili izinhlobo zizofana, inqobo nje uma izimo ezifanele zinikezwa futhi kukhona ikhava yesitshalo enhle.

Akufanele kushiwo ukuthi i-evapotranspiration yinto engasithandi nakancane. Kusho ukulahlekelwa yimithombo yamanzi engeke isetshenziswe. Kumele futhi sikhumbule ukuthi kungenye yezinto ezengeziwe kumjikelezo wamanzi we-hydrological nokuthi, kungekudala noma nini, konke okuhwamukile ngelinye ilanga kuzophinde kunqamule.

Ukubaluleka kwezolimo

I-Evapotranspiration kwezolimo

Zonke izincazelo ezingenhla zibalulekile ekubalweni kobunjiniyela bezitshalo. Lapho sisebenzisa amanani we-ETP ne-ETR ku-hydrology, ngakho-ke kubhekelwa kuphela ngaphakathi kwebhalansi ephelele yomcengezi. Lezi zinto yilezo ezikhombisa inani lamanzi alahlekile kulokho okugxile. Ukubheka umthamo wamanzi angaphezulu atholakalayo, njengasemgodini, ukungena ngaphakathi nakho kuyinto enciphisa inani lamanzi atholakalayo.

Ukubaluleka kwe-evapotranspiration kwanda kakhulu lapho singena emkhakheni wezolimo. Kulezi zimo, umehluko phakathi kwe-ETP ne-ETR kungaba ukusilela. Kwezolimo lo mehluko ufunwa ukuthi ungabi uziro, ngoba uzokhombisa ukuthi izitshalo zihlala zinamanzi anele okujuluka lapho ziwadinga. Ngakho-ke songa amanzi okunisela futhi, ngakho-ke, sinokwehliswa kwezindleko zokukhiqiza.

Imfuneko yamanzi okunisela ibizwa ngalo mehluko phakathi kwe-evapotranspiration.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi kucace bha ukubaluleka nokusizakala kwe-evapotranspiration.


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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.