Ukwahlukaniswa kwesimo sezulu saseKöppen

koppen ukwahlukaniswa kwesimo sezulu

Isimo sezulu seplanethi singahlukaniswa ngezindlela ezahlukahlukene ngokuya ngokuhlukahluka okuthile nemingcele. Kuyadingeka ukukwazi ukuhlukanisa isimo sezulu ukusungula ukuhleleka endaweni yokusabalalisa izinhlobo eziningi zezilwane nezitshalo, ukwakhiwa kwezakhiwo, ukusungulwa kwamadolobha, ukubikezelwa kwesimo sezulu, njll. Enye yazo yi- Ukwahlukaniswa kwesimo sezulu saseKöppen. Kuluhlelo olususelwa eqinisweni lokuthi uhlaza lwemvelo lunobudlelwano obucacile nesimo sezulu, ngakho-ke imingcele phakathi kwesimo sezulu esinye nesinye ibekiwe kucatshangelwa ukwabiwa kotshalo endaweni ethize.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela ukuthi ukwahlukaniswa kwesimo sezulu saseKöppen kusekelwe nokuthi yiziphi izici zayo eziyinhloko.

Izici eziyinhloko

Isimo sezulu se-spain

Ukwahlukaniswa kwesimo sezulu saseKöppen kusekelwe ekusungulweni kwesimo sezulu esisuselwa endaweni yokwabiwa kwezinhlobo ezithile zezulu. Amapharamitha okuzokwazi Ukunquma isimo sezulu sendawo kuvamise ukuba isilinganiso samazinga okushisa minyaka yonke kanye nenyanga nenyanga. Isikhathi sonyaka semvula naso sicatshangelwa. Kulokhu, kuyinto ehlukile.

Ihlukanisa isimo sezulu emhlabeni ngezigaba ezinhlanu eziyinhloko: ezishisayo, ezomile, ezipholile, zezwekazi nezindawo ezibandayo, ezikhonjwe ngofeleba bokuqala. Iqembu ngalinye liyiqoqo elincane futhi iqembu elincane ngalinye liwuhlobo lwesimo sezulu.

Ukwahlukaniswa kwesimo sezulu saseKöppen ekuqaleni kudalwe ngu isazi sezulu saseJalimane uWladimir Köppen ngo-1884, futhi kamuva ibuyekezwe nguye noRudolf Geiger, ichaza uhlobo ngalunye lwesimo sezulu ngochungechunge lwezinhlamvu, imvamisa ezintathu, ezibonisa ukusebenza kwamazinga okushisa nemvula. Ingesinye sezigaba zezulu ezisetshenziswa kakhulu ngenxa yobuningi bayo nokulula kwayo.

Ukwahlukaniswa kwesimo sezulu saseKöppen: izinhlobo zezulu

ukuhlukaniswa kwesimo sezulu se-koppen

Ake sibheke ukuthi iyiphi imininingwane yenqubo yokunquma iqembu ngalinye lesimo sezulu, uhlobo neqembu elincane. Ikhathalogu enkulu yesimo sezulu ihlukaniswe yaba yinye futhi yethula izimila ezihambisanayo nezifunda ezitholakala kuzo.

Iqembu A: isimo sezulu esishisayo

Kulolu hlobo lwesimo sezulu, ayikho inyanga yonyaka enezinga lokushisa elijwayelekile elingaphansi kwama-degree angu-18. Imvula yonyaka iphezulu kunezinga lokuhwamuka. Imayelana nesimo sezulu esikhona emahlathini asezindaweni ezishisayo. Ngaphakathi kweqembu A lesimo sezulu sinezigaba ezithile. Lokhu okulandelayo:

  • Inkabazwe: Kulesi simo sezulu, ayikho inyanga enemvula engaphansi kwama-60mm. Isimo sezulu esishisayo nesinenzondo unyaka wonke lapho kungekho zikhathi zonyaka. Kwenzeka e-Ecuador kuze kufike ku-10 degrees latitude futhi yisimo sezulu sehlathi elizwakalayo.
  • Monsoon: yinyanga eyodwa kuphela engaphansi kwama-60mm futhi uma ukuvuselelwa kwenyanga eyoma kakhulu kuphakeme kunefomula [100- (Imvula yonyaka / 25)]. Kuyisimo sezulu esifudumele unyaka wonke nenkathi emfushane eyomile elandelwa umswakama onemvula enkulu. Ngokuvamile kwenzeka eNtshonalanga Afrika naseningizimu-mpumalanga ye-Asia. Isimo sezulu samahlathi aseMonsoon.
  • Ishidi lombhede: unenyanga engaphansi kwama-60 mm futhi uma imvula yenyanga eyoma kakhulu ingaphansi kwenqubo [100- (Annual Precipitation / 25)]. Isimo sezulu esifudumele unyaka wonke futhi sinesikhathi esomile. Kubonakala njengoba sisuka e-Ecuador. Isimo sezulu esitholakala eCuba, ezindaweni ezinkulu zaseBrazil, naseNdiya enkulu. Kuyinto ejwayelekile ye-savannah.

Iqembu B: isimo sezulu esomile

Imvula yonyaka ingaphansi kokuvela kwe-evapotranspiration yaminyaka yonke. Yisimo sezulu sezindawo ezinotshani nezingwadule.

Ukunquma ukuthi isimo sezulu somile, sithola umkhawulo wemvula ngo-mm. Ukubala umkhawulo, siphindaphinda izinga lokushisa lonyaka ngonyaka ngama-20, bese sengeza uma imvula engama-70% noma ngaphezulu iwela kwisemester lapho ilanga lingama-280. eningizimu yezwe), noma izikhathi eziyi-140 (uma imvula kuleso sikhathi iphakathi kuka-30% no-70% wemvula ephelele), noma izikhathi ezingama-0 (uma isikhathi siphakathi kuka-30% no-70%) Imvula ingaphansi kuka-30% kwezulu okuphelele.

Uma ingqikithi yemvula yaminyaka yonke ingaphezu kwalesi sibalo, akusona isimo sezulu B. Ake sibheke ukuthi iziphi izimo zezulu ezomile:

  • I-steppe efudumele: Ubusika bumnene futhi bufudumele ihlobo elifudumele kakhulu. Imvula iyindlala futhi izimila zayo zemvelo zilindile. Imvamisa kwenzeka ezindaweni ezishisayo nasezindaweni ezishisayo onqenqemeni lwezingwadule ezishisayo.
  • I-steppe ebandayo: kulesi simo sezulu kanti ubusika buyabanda noma bubanda kakhulu. Singathola futhi ihlobo elifudumele noma elifudumele elinemvula encane ne-Esteban njengotshani bemvelo. Imvamisa zitholakala ezindaweni ezipholile futhi zikude nolwandle.
  • Ugwadule olushisayo: Ubusika bumnene yize izindawo ezisemaphandleni amazinga okushisa engafinyelela kuma-zero degrees ebusuku. Ihlobo liyashisa noma lishisa kakhulu. Kwezinye izindawo ezinesimo sezulu, amazinga okushisa ehlobo aphakeme ngokwedlulele, futhi aphezulu kakhulu emhlabeni abhaliwe. Imvula iyindlala kakhulu. Imvamisa kwenzeka emaphethelweni asezindaweni ezishisayo zombili izingqimba zomhlaba.
  • Ugwadule olubandayo: kulesi simo sezulu nobusika buyabanda impela kanti ihlobo limnene noma lifudumele. Imvula iyindlala impela kanti nohlaza uqobo lwalo lolo lwasogwadule, kwesinye isikhathi lube lungekho. Kunamazinga okushisa aphakathi nendawo.

Ukwahlukaniswa kwesimo sezulu saseKöppen: iqembu C

izinhlobo zezulu emhlabeni

Ngaphakathi kweqembu C sinezimo zezulu ezipholile. Izinga lokushisa eliphakathi nenyanga ebanda kakhulu liphakathi kuka -3ºC (kwezinye izigaba 0ºC) kanye no-18ºC, kanti leyo yenyanga efudumele idlula u-10ºC. Amahlathi apholile atholakala kulezi zimo zezulu.

  • Ogwini lwengozi yasolwandle: kubusika obubandayo noma obumnene namakhaza apholile. Imvula nayo isatshalaliswa unyaka wonke. Kukhona uhlaza lwemvelo olungamahlathi alukhuni.
  • I-Subarctic maritime: Kugqame ukuba nobusika obubandayo futhi ngaphandle kwehlobo langempela. Kunezimvula unyaka wonke futhi kunezindawo ezithile ezinemimoya enamandla engavumeli neze ukukhula kwezimila.
  • IMeditheraBanobusika obuncane nobushushu obushisayo nobomile. Iningi lezimvula lina ebusika noma ngezikhathi eziphakathi nendawo. Ihlathi laseMedithera uhlaza lwemvelo.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngokuhlukaniswa kwesimo sezulu saseKöppen kanye nezici zayo.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.