Ubudala bomhlaba

Umhlaba ubonwe esemkhathini

Okungenani okwamanje, ukuphela kweplanethi okukhona kuyo impilo. Kuyinto nje ibanga elifanele ukusuka elangeni ukuze kube namanzi asesimweni soketshezi kanye nezinga lokushisa elanele ngokwanele ukuba likhule izigidi zezitshalo nezilwane. Umhlaba.

Uneminyaka emingaka? Uhambo lwakhe lokuba yilokhu ayikho manje belulude kakhulu futhi lugcwele ingozi. Isikhala esingaphandle akuyona indawo ephephile. Kepha, Uyini umhlaba womhlaba futhi ubalwe kanjani?

Uneminyaka emingaki uMhlaba?

IPlanethi yoMhlaba ebonwa emkhathini

Noma ingekho inombolo eqondile, iplanethi yethu yaziwa cishe ineminyaka eyizigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezine nengxenye ubudala. Izazi zokwakheka komhlaba nezazi ze-geophysicists zikwazile ukubala iminyaka yobudala ngokulinganisa izinga lapho izakhi zensimbi enemisebe ye-uranium zibola zibe ngumthofu. Futhi, besebenzisa amasu we-radiometric dating, bathole iminyaka yama-meteorite, efana naleyo yoMhlaba neNyanga.

Amaminerali amadala kakhulu aziwayo yi-zirconium evela endaweni yaseJack Hills eNtshonalanga Australia. Kulinganiselwa ukuthi baneminyaka engama-4.404 wezigidi ubudala. Ama-meteorite amadala kakhulu atholakala kusistimu yelanga, okungukuthi, ukufakwa kwe-calcium-aluminium-rich, aneminyaka eyizigidi ezingama-4.567. Lokhu kusho ukuthi iSolar System yaqala ukwakhiwa eminyakeni eyizigidi ezingama-4.567 edlule.

I-hypothesis eyodwa ithi uMhlaba waqala ukwakheka ngemuva nje kokuthi ama-meteorite enzile, kepha okwamanje akukwazi ukukhomba ubudala bawo ngqo.

Imibono yokuqala

Rock entabeni

Isikhathi eside bekucatshangwa ukuthi iplanethi ibilokhu ikhona kuze kube phakade, kuze kube yilapho izazi zemvelo ziqala ukuqonda izinguquko ezahlukahlukene iplanethi eyazenza lapho zihlola izingqimba zayo. UNicolas Steno wayengomunye wabokuqala ukubona ukuxhumana okukhona phakathi kwezinsalela zezinsalela zamathambo nalolu hlaka olubalulwe ngenhla. Cishe ngonyaka we-1790, isazi semvelo saseBrithani uWilliam Smith wakucabanga ukuthi uma izingqimba ezimbili zamatshe ezindaweni ezahlukahlukene ziqukethe izinsalela ezifanayo, kungenzeka kakhulu ukuthi zombili izingqimba zavela ngasikhathi sinye. Ngemuva kweminyaka umshana wakhe, uJohn Phillips, wabala esebenzisa lezi zindlela ukuthi iminyaka yoMhlaba ingaba yiminyaka eyizigidi ezingama-96.

Isazi semvelo uMikhail Lomonosov wacabanga ukuthi uMhlaba wakha ngokuzimela kuwo wonke umhlaba, eminyakeni eyizinkulungwane ezingamakhulu ambalwa edlule. Ngo-1779 isazi semvelo esingumFulentshi uComte Du Buffon senza ucwaningo: wadala imbulunga encane enokwakheka okufana ncamashi neplanethi yase ikala isilinganiso sayo sokupholisa. Ngakho-ke, ulinganise iminyaka yomhlaba cishe eminyakeni eyizinkulungwane ezingama-75.

Nokho, Kwaze kwaba ngo-1830 lapho isazi sokuma komhlaba okuthiwa uCharles Lyell sasikisela ukuthi iplanethi ihlale iguquka. Lokhu, yize namuhla kuyinto engokwemvelo futhi inengqondo ngokuphelele kithi, ngaleso sikhathi kwakuyinkolelo yenoveli kakhulu, ngoba babecabanga ukuthi iplanethi iyinto emile, ukuthi yashintsha kuphela ngezinhlekelele zemvelo.

Izibalo

Umzimba we UGlasgow William Thomson washicilela ngo-1862 uchungechunge lwezibalo ezilinganisela ukuthi ubudala beplanethi yethu buphakathi kweminyaka eyizigidi ezingama-24 nezingama-400. U-Lord Kelvin, owayezobizwa kanjalo kamuva, wacabanga ukuthi uMhlaba wakheka njengebhola ledwala elincibilikisiwe, futhi wabala isikhathi esithathile ukuthi inqubo yokupholisa ifinyelele izinga lokushisa lamanje (14 ° C). Naphezu kwakho konke, izazi zokwakheka komhlaba zazingaqiniseki neze ukuthi le mfundiso yayivumelekile.

UCharles Darwin, owafunda ngemisebenzi kaLyell, waphakamisa umbono wakhe wokukhethwa kwemvelo, inqubo lapho uchungechunge lwezinguquko ezintweni eziphilayo futhi, empeleni, isikhathi sasidingeka ukuze zenzeke.. Ngakho-ke, wayecabanga ukuthi iminyaka eyizigidi ezingama-400 ayanele.

Ngo-1856 isazi sefilosofi saseJalimane uHermann von Helmholt kwathi ngo-1892 isazi sezinkanyezi saseCanada uSimon Newcomb, wethula izibalo zabo. Esokuqala sasineminyaka engu-22 million ubudala, kanti esesibili sasingu-18 million. Ososayensi bebefikile kulezi zibalo ngokubala isikhathi obekuzothatha ukuthi iLanga liguquke liye kububanzi balo bamanje namandla alo lisuka kwi-nebula yegesi nothuli elakhiwe kulo.

Ukuthuthukiswa kokuphola nge-radiometric

Izinsalela nezinsalela

Njengamanje singaba nomqondo wokuthi amadwala namaminerali amadala kangakanani ngenxa yokuphola nge-radiometric, okuyi inqubo eyenziwa ngu-Arthur Holmes ekuqaleni kwekhulu lama-XNUMX futhi esekwe ezingeni le-isotopu ebizwa ngokuthi ngubaba kanye neyenzalo eyodwa noma eziningi ezaziwa ngesiqingatha sempilo yazo.

Ukuqomisana kweRadiometric kwashicilelwa okokuqala ngonyaka we-1907 nguBertran Boltwood futhi namuhla kungumthombo omkhulu wolwazi mayelana neminyaka yamatshe, noma iplanethi yoMhlaba uqobo. Kunezindlela ezahlukahlukene zokuqomisana, okuyilezi:

  • Indlela yeCarbon 14: Ilusizo ekuqomeni kwezemivubukulo, i-anthropology, i-climatology, i-oceanography, i-edaphology, ne-geology yakamuva.
  • Indlela ye-Potassium-argon: isetshenziswa ku-geology.
  • Indlela yeRubidium-etrontium: lisetshenziswa ekubonaneni kwamatshe asendulo omhlaba kanye namasampuli wenyanga.
  • Izindlela zeThorium 230: esetshenziswa ezindlekweni zasolwandle ezindala kakhulu.
  • Izindlela zokuhola: isetshenziswe ku-geology.

Ngakho, UHolmes wenza izilinganiso kumasampula wedwala kwathi ngo-1911 waphetha ngokuthi endala kunayo yonke yayineminyaka eyizigidi eziyi-1600 ubudala.. Kepha lezi zibalo bezingathembeki kakhulu. Eminyakeni emibili kamuva, kwashicilelwa imiphumela ekhombisa ukuthi izakhi zazinama-isotopes, okuhlukahluka okuhlukahlukene okunesisindo esihlukile. Ngawo-30, ama-isotopes aboniswa ukuthi anezakhi ezakhiwe izinombolo ezahlukahlukene zezinhlayiya ezingathathi hlangothi noma i-neutron.

Umsebenzi kaHolmes wazitshwa kwaze kwaba ngawo-1920, lapho ngo-1921 emhlanganweni waminyaka yonke weBritish Association for the Advancement of Science amalungu athola ukuthi iminyaka yeplanethi yayiyiminyaka eyizigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezimbalwa, nokuthi ukujola kwe-radiometric kwakuthembekile. Ngo-1927 washicilela incwadi yakhe ethi »The Age of the Earth, an Introduction to Geological Ideas lapho abala khona ukuthi yayiphakathi kweminyaka eyizigidi eziyi-1600 kanye no-3000 ubudala.

Cishe ngonyaka ka-1931 iNational Reserach Council, yeNational Academy of Science yase-United States, yaqoka ikomidi elizothola ukuthi uMhlaba uneminyaka emingaki. UHolmes, ongomunye wabantu abambalwa ababazi amasu wokuphola nge-radiometric, wamenywa ukuthi azosebenza ekomidini. Umbiko abawukhiqizayo wathi ukujola kwe-radiometric kwakuwukuphela kwendlela enokwethenjelwa engasetshenziswa ukuthola ukulandelana kwezikhathi ze-geologic.

Ekugcineni, u-CC Patterson wabala iminyaka yoMhlaba ngo-1956 esebenzisa isotope esivela ku-uranium lead lead chain of meteorites.

Iplanethi yomhlaba evela emkhathini

Iplanethi yethu isenezigidi eziningi zeminyaka yokuphila ngaphambi kwayo. Uma ekugcineni umbono wokuthi iLanga "lizogwinya" umhlaba lapho uphenduka umdondoshiya obomvu, singaqiniseka ukuthi usazungeza inkosi yenkanyezi cishe iminyaka eyizigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezinhlanu.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Amazwana ayi-2, shiya okwakho

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.

  1.   Ongaziwa kusho

    Kuyizinkolelo nje kuphela, kusaziwa ngokusobala ukuthi ngabe lolu lwazi luyiqiniso. Kepha yibo abasondelene neqiniso.

  2.   UDaniel Rincon kusho

    Isiphetho esibaluleke kunazo zonke besilahlekile, futhi lokho ukubalwa kweminyaka yomhlaba ngokusho kocwaningo lwakamuva olwenziwa yiCC Patterson ngo-1956 kusetshenziswa isotopu esivela ku-uranium lead lead chain of meteorites.