Umphumela kaTyndall

Umphumela kaTyndall

Kuzo zombili i-physics kanye ne-chemistry, kucwaningwa into esiza ukuchaza ukuthi kungani ezinye izinhlayiya zibonakala ngezikhathi ezithile. Lo mkhuba waziwa ngokuthi Umphumela kaTyndall. Kuyisimo somzimba esafundwa ngusosayensi wase-Ireland uJohn Tyndall ngo-1869. Kusukela lapho lezi zifundo ziye zasebenza kaningi emkhakheni we-physics kanye ne-chemistry. Futhi ukuthi ifunda izinhlayiya ezithile ezingabonakali ngeso lenyama. Kodwa-ke, ngoba ziyakwazi ukukhanyisa noma ukukhanyisa ukukhanya, ziye zingabonakali ezimweni ezithile.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela konke odinga ukukwazi ngomphumela kaTyndall nokubaluleka kwawo kwe-physics kwikhemistry.

Uyini umphumela weTyndall

Luhlobo lwesimo somzimba esichaza ukuthi izinhlayiya ezithile ezihlanjululwe noma ngaphakathi kwegesi zingabonakala kanjani ngenxa yokuthi ziyakwazi ukubonakalisa noma ukubuyisa ukukhanya. Uma siyibuka ekuqaleni, singabona ukuthi lezi zinhlayiya azibonakali. Kodwa-ke, iqiniso lokuthi ingahlakaza noma ifake ukukhanya ngokuhlukile ngokuya ngemvelo etholakala kuyo, ivumela ukuhlukanisa. Bangabonakala uma bemiswa kusixazululo ngenkathi bewela ngapha nangapha endizeni ebukwayo ngosibani omkhulu wokukhanya.

Uma ukukhanya kungadluli kulo mongo abakwazi ukubonwa. Isibonelo, ukuze sikuqonde kalula sikhuluma ngezinhlayiya ezinjengezinhlayiya zothuli. Lapho ilanga lingena ngefasitela ngezinga elithile lokuthambekela siyabona izinhlayiya zothuli ezintanta emoyeni. Lezi zinhlayiya azibonakali ngenye indlela. Zibonakala kuphela lapho ilanga lingena egumbini elinokuthambekela okuthile nokuqina okuthile.

Lokhu yilokho okwaziwa njengomphumela kaTyndall. Ngokuya ngombono wombukeli, ungabona izinhlayiya ngokuvamile ezingakwazi. Esinye isibonelo esiveza umphumela kaTyndall lapho sisebenzisa amalambu emoto esimweni sezulu esinenkungu. Ukukhanya okuqhutshwa abambalwa kumswakama kusenza sikwazi ukubona izinhlayiya zamanzi zimisiwe. Ngaphandle kwalokho, besizobona kuphela ukuthi iyini inkungu uqobo.

Ukubaluleka neminikelo

Umphumela kaTyndall ekhemistry

Kokubili i-physics kanye ne-chemistry, umphumela weTyndall uneminikelo eminingi ezifundweni ezithile nokubaluleka okukhulu. Futhi kungenxa yokuthi ngenxa yalomphumela singachaza ukuthi kungani isibhakabhaka siluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka. Siyazi ukuthi ukukhanya okuvela elangeni kumhlophe. Kodwa-ke, lapho umkhathi woMhlaba ungena, ushayisana nama-molecule amagesi ahlukene awubumbayo. Siyakhumbula ukuthi umkhathi womhlaba wakhiwe kakhulu ngama-molecule enitrogen, oksijini nama-argon ngezinga elincane. Ezingxenyeni eziphansi kakhulu kukhona amagesi abamba ukushisa phakathi kwawo esinakho isikhutha, imethane nomhwamuko wamanzi, phakathi kokunye.

Lapho ukukhanya okumhlophe okuvela elangeni kushaya zonke lezi zinhlayiya ezimisiwe kudlulela ekuphambukeni okuhlukile. Ukuphambuka okubangelwa ukukhanya okuvela elangeni ngamamolekyuli e-oksijini akwi-nitrogen kubangela ukuthi kube nemibala ehlukene. Le mibala incike ebangeni lamaza nasezingeni lokuchezuka. Imibala ephambuka kakhulu i-violet futhi iluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka njengoba inebude obufushane. Lokhu kwenza isibhakabhaka sibe lo mbala.

UJohn Tyndall ubuye waba ngumtholi womphumela wokushisa okushisayo sibonga ukulingiswa komoya woMhlaba elabhoratri. Inhloso yokuqala yalolu cwaningo kwakuwukubala ngokunembile ukuthi angakanani amandla elanga aqhamuka eMhlabeni nokuthi kwakungakanani okwaphindela emuva esikhaleni ebusweni bomhlaba. Njengoba sazi, akuyona yonke imisebe yelanga ewela kwiplanethi yethu ehlala. Ingxenye yawo isuswa ngamafu ngaphambi kokufinyelela ngaphezulu. Enye ingxenye imuncwa amagesi abamba ukushisa. Ekugcineni, indawo yomhlaba iphambukisa ingxenye yesigameko imisebe yelanga kuye nge-albedo yohlobo ngalunye lomhlabathi. Ngemuva kokuhlolwa okwenziwe nguTyndall ngo-1859, wakwazi ukuthola umphumela wokushisa.

Okuguqukayo okuthinta umphumela weTyndall

Njengoba sishilo ngaphambili, umphumela weTyndall akuyona enye into ngaphandle kokuhlakazeka kokukhanya okwenzeka lapho umsebe wokukhanya udlula ku-colloid. Le colloid yizinhlayiya ezimisiwe ngazinye ezibhekele ukuhlakazeka nokubonisa okude, kuzenze zibonakale. Okuguqukayo okuthinta umphumela weTyndall imvamisa yokukhanya nobuningi bezinhlayiya. Inani lokusakazeka elingabonakala kulolu hlobo lomphumela lincike ngokuphelele kumanani wokuvama kokukhanya nobungako bezinhlayiya.

Njengokusatshalaliswa kukaRayleigh, ilambu eliluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka livame ukusabalala kakhulu kunokukhanya okubomvu ngoba linobude obufushane. Enye indlela yokuyibuka ukuthi kunebude obude obude obudluliswayo, kanti obufushane bubonakala ngokusakazeka. Okunye okuguqukayo okuthinta ubukhulu bezinhlayiya. Lokhu yilokhu okuhlukanisa i-colloid kusixazululo sangempela. Ukuze ingxube ibe yohlobo lwe-colloid, izinhlayiya ezimisiwe kufanele zibe nosayizi olinganiselwe ebangeni eliphakathi kwama-nanometer ayi-1-1000 ububanzi.

Ake sibheke ezinye zezibonelo eziyinhloko lapho singasebenzisa khona umphumela weTyndall:

  • Nini Sikhanyisa isibani sengilazi yobisi siyawubona umphumela kaTyndall. Kungcono ukusebenzisa ubisi oluncibilikayo noma unciphise ubisi ngamanzi amancane ukuze kubonakale umphumela wezinhlayiya ze-colloidal kusibani esikhanyayo.
  • Esinye isibonelo ngesokusabalalisa ukukhanya okuluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka futhi kungabonakala ngombala oluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka wentuthu ovela ezithuthuthu noma izinjini ezinama-stroke amabili.
  • Ugongolo olubonakalayo lwezibani eziphambili enkungwini lungenza izinhlayiya zamanzi ezintantayo zibonakale.
  • Lo mphumela usetshenziselwa izilungiselelo zezohwebo nezelebhu ukuze kutholakale ubukhulu bezinhlayiya ze-aerosol.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngomphumela weTyndall.


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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.