Izici nokubaluleka kwe-stratosphere

I-stratosphere ungqimba lwesibili lomkhathi

Umkhathi wethu une izingqimba ezahlukene lapho kukhona khona amagesi ahlukene ezakhiwayo ezahlukahlukene. Isendlalelo ngasinye somkhathi sinomsebenzi waso kanye nezici zaso eziwenza wehluke kokunye.

Sine i-troposphere okuyisendlalelo somkhathi esihlala kuwo lapho kwenzeka khona zonke izimo zezulu, i-stratosphere okuyisendlalelo sendawo lapho ungqimba lwe-ozone lutholakala khona, i-mesosphere lapho izibani ezisenyakatho zenzeka khona futhi i-thermosphere lokho kungqonge emkhathini futhi lapho izinga lokushisa liphakeme kakhulu. Kulokhu okuthunyelwe sizogxila kwi-stratosphere kanye nokubaluleka kwayo empilweni emhlabeni.

Izici ze-Stratosphere

Ku-stratosphere, amazinga okushisa aphansi kakhulu futhi akhula phezulu

I-stratosphere isendaweni ephakeme ye- cishe nge-10-15 km ukuphakama futhi ifinyelela cishe ku-45-50 km. Ukushisa ku-stratosphere kuyahluka ngale ndlela elandelayo: okokuqala, kuqala ukuzinza (ngoba kutholakala ezindaweni eziphakeme eziseduze ne-tropopause lapho izinga lokushisa lihlala lilingana) futhi liphansi impela. Njengoba sikhuphuka phezulu, izinga lokushisa kwe-stratosphere liyakhula, njengoba limunca imisebe yelanga eyengeziwe. Ukuziphatha kwamazinga okushisa ku-troposphere kusebenza ngokungafani nalokho okwenziwa yi-troposphere esihlala kuyo, okungukuthi, esikhundleni sokwehla ngobude, kuyanda.

Ku-stratosphere akukho ukunyakaza okuqondile mpo komoya, kepha imimoya evundlile ingafinyelela kaningi ku-200 km / h. Inkinga ngalo moya ukuthi noma iyiphi into efinyelela ku-stratosphere isakazeka kuyo yonke iplanethi. Isibonelo salokhu ama-CFC. Lawa magesi akhiwe nge-chlorine ne-fluorine aqeda ungqimba lwe-ozone futhi asakazeka kuyo yonke iplanethi ngenxa yemimoya enamandla evela e-stratosphere.

Cishe awekho amafu noma okunye ukwakheka kwesimo sezulu ku-stratosphere. Kwesinye isikhathi abantu bavame ukudida ukwanda kwamazinga okushisa e-stratosphere nokusondela kwawo kwiLanga. Kunengqondo ukucabanga ukuthi lapho usondele kakhulu kwiLanga, kuzoba kushisa ngokwengeziwe. Noma kunjalo, lokhu akunjalo ngalokho. Ku-stratosphere singahlangana ungqimba lwe-ozone oludumile. Isendlalelo se-ozone ngokwaso akuyona "ungqimba", kepha siyindawo yomkhathi lapho ukugxila kwaleli gesi kuphakeme kakhulu kunasemkhathini wonke. Ama-molecule e-ozone anesibopho sokumunca imisebe yelanga esishaya ngqo kusuka eLangeni futhi evumela impilo eMhlabeni. Lawa ma-molecule amunca imisebe yelanga e-ultraviolet aguqula lawo mandla abe ngukushisa, ngakho-ke, yingakho izinga lokushisa kwe-stratosphere landa ngobude.

Ngoba kukhona isikhathi esinqabile lapho umoya uzinze khona kakhulu futhi kungekho imisinga yomoya, ukushintshaniswa kwezinhlayiya phakathi kwe-troposphere ne-stratosphere kucishe kube zero. Ngalesi sizathu awukho umhwamuko wamanzi ku-stratosphere. Lokhu kusho ukuthi amafu akwi-stratosphere enza kuphela uma kubanda kakhulu kangangokuba inani elincane lamanzi akhona liyajiya futhi lakhe amakristalu eqhwa. Abizwa ngokuthi amafu e-ice crystal futhi awabangeli mvula.

Ekupheleni kwe-stratosphere yi-stratopause. Kuyindawo yomkhathi lapho ukuminyana okuphezulu kwe-ozone kuyaphela futhi izinga lokushisa liba eliqinile kakhulu (cishe 0 degrees centigrade). I-stratopause iyona enikeza indlela kwi-mesosphere.

Njengokulangazelela, izinhlanganisela zamakhemikhali ezinempilo ende kuphela ezingafinyelela ku-stratosphere. Manje yebo, uma sebekhona, bangahlala isikhathi eside. Isibonelo, izinto ezikhishwa ukuqhuma okukhulu kwentaba-mlilo ziyakwazi ukuhlala e-stratosphere cishe iminyaka emibili.

Ungqimba lwe-ozone

Ungqimba lwe-ozone lulimale ngenxa yamaCFC kodwa seluyalulama

Ungqimba lwe-ozone ayihlali njalo inamanani afanayo alo gesi kude nayo. Ku-stratosphere, i-ozone yakhiwa ngokuqhubekayo futhi ibhujiswe ngasikhathi sinye. Ukuze i-ozone yakheke, imisebe yelanga kufanele yehlukanise i-molecule ye-oxygen (O2) ibe ama-athomu amabili e-oxygen (O). Elinye lalawa ma-athomu lapho lihlangana nelinye i-molecule yomoya-mpilo liphendula lenze i-ozone (O3).

Yile ndlela okwakhiwa ngayo ama-molecule e-ozone. Kodwa-ke, ngokwemvelo, njengoba zidaliwe, zibhujiswa yimisebe yelanga. Imisebe yokukhanya evela eLangeni iwela kwi-molecule ye-ozone iphinde iyibhubhise futhi ukuze kuphume i-molecule ye-oxygen (O2) ne-athomu ye-oxygen (O). Manje i-athomu ye-oksijeni iphendula nenye i-molecule ye-ozone ukwakha ama-molecule amabili e-oxygen, njalonjalo. Kungumjikelezo wemvelo olinganiselayo phakathi kokwakheka nokubhujiswa kwama-molecule e-ozone. Ngale ndlela, lolu ungqimba lwamagesi lungadonsa imisebe eminingi eyingozi ye-ultraviolet futhi lusivikele.

Lokhu bekunesikhathi eside kwenzeka. Umjikelezo lapho ukuhlushwa kwe-ozone kugcinwa khona ekugxileni okuzinzile nokuhlala njalo ngokuhamba kwesikhathi. Kodwa-ke, kunenye indlela yokwehlela ku-ozone esemkhathini. AmaChlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) zizinzile kakhulu emkhathini ngakho-ke zingafinyelela ku-stratosphere. Lawa magesi anempilo ende, kepha lapho efika ku-stratosphere, imisebe ye-ultraviolet evela eLangeni ibhubhisa ama-molecule, ikhiphe ama-chlorine radicals asebenza kahle kakhulu. Lawa ma-radicals asebenzayo abulala ama-molecule e-ozone, ngakho-ke inani eliphelele le-ozone elibhujisiwe likhulu kakhulu kunalelo elenziwe. Ngale ndlela ibhalansi phakathi kokukhiqizwa nokubhujiswa kwama-molecule e-ozone akwazi ukumunca imisebe yelanga eyingozi kithi yephuliwe.

Imiphumela yomgodi kusendlalelo lwe-ozone

Ngeshwa, esikhathini esidlule lesi sihloko besingaziwa ngokuningiliziwe kangako, ukuze kwimisebenzi yabantu (ukusetshenziswa kwama-chlorofluorocarbon aerosols) bakwazile ukufinyelela ku-stratosphere amanani amakhulu e-chlorine ne-bromine aqeda ama-molecule e-ozone. Ngoba ukusabela kudinga ukukhanya nokwakhiwa kwamafu asezindaweni ezibandayo emazingeni okushisa aphansi kakhulu, amazinga aphansi e-ozone avela entwasahlobo ye-Antarctica namafomu emigodi ye-ozone, ikakhulukazi ngaphezulu kwe-Antarctica. Lezi zimbobo ze-ozone zidala imisebe eminingi ye-ultraviolet ukuthi ifinyelele ebusweni bomhlaba futhi isheshise ukuncibilika.

Kubantu, ukwehliswa kocingo lwe-ozone kubangele ukwanda kwesifo somdlavuza wesikhumba ngenxa yenani elikhulu lemisebe yelanga efinyelela kithi. Izitshalo nazo ziyathinteka, ikakhulukazi lezo ezikhulayo futhi ezineziqu namaqabunga amancane.

Imiphumela yezindiza ku-stratosphere

Izindiza zindiza e-stratosphere esezansi ukugwema ukumelana kakhulu ku-fuselage

Izindiza nazo zibe nomthelela ku-stratosphere, ngoba imvamisa indiza endaweni ephakeme phakathi kwamakhilomitha ayi-10 kuye kwayi-12, okuwukuthi, eduze ne-tropopause nokuqala kwe-stratosphere. Njengoba ithrafikhi yomoya ikhulile, ukukhishwa kwe-carbon dioxide (CO2), umusi wamanzi (i-H2O), i-nitrogen oxides (NOx), i-sulfur oxides (i-SOx) ne-soot kuye kwanda kuya emkhathini phakathi kwe-troposphere ephezulu ne stratosphere aphansi.

Namuhla, izindiza zibanga kuphela phakathi kuka-2 no-3% wokukhishwa komhlaba okushisa ukushisa. Lokhu akubalulekanga kangako maqondana nokushisa komhlaba. Kodwa-ke, okubaluleke ngempela ngezindiza ukuthi amagesi azikhiphayo enza kanjalo engxenyeni engenhla ye-troposphere. Lokhu kubangela ukuthi umhwamuko ophume wamanzi wandise amathuba okwakha amafu e-cirrus agcina ukushisa okuningi eMhlabeni futhi abambe iqhaza ekufudumaleni komhlaba.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, ama-nitrogen oxide akhishwa yizindiza nawo ayingozi, ngoba ahlobene nokunyamalala kwe-ozone kuyi-stratosphere. Kufanele sicabange ukuthi yize amagesi abamba ukushisa akhishwa yizindiza engenayo impilo ende kakhulu ukufinyelela ku-stratosphere, angakwenza lokho, ngoba akhishwa endaweni ephakeme kakhulu eduze kwawo.

Izintshisakalo zeStratosphere

amagciwane amancane ahlala ku-strata

Lolu ungqimba lomkhathi lunezifiso ezithile ezingasimangaza. Phakathi kwalezo zilangazelelo kukhona:

  • Ukuminyana komoya ingaphansi ngo-10% ukuthi ebusweni bomhlaba
  • Amazinga okushisa ezingqimbeni ezingezansi aseduze -56 degrees ngokwesilinganiso futhi imisinga yomoya ifinyelela kumakhilomitha angama-200 ngehora.
  • Kunemibiko eqinisekisa ubukhona bezinto ezincane ezincane uhlala e-stratosphere. Lezi zinambuzane kukholakala ukuthi zivela emkhathini. Yizinhlamvu zebhaktheriya, izinto eziphikisana kakhulu nezingakha ungqimba oluvikelayo okuzungezile ngakho-ke zisinde emazingeni okushisa aphansi, ezimeni ezomile nasemazingeni aphezulu emisebe etholakala ku-stratosphere.

Njengoba ukwazi ukubona, umkhathi unemisebenzi emihle yethu kanye nezinye izidalwa eziphilayo ezihlala emhlabeni wethu. I-stratosphere iqukethe okuthile okudingekayo ukuze sisinde nokuthi, noma ngabe iphakeme ngamamayela, kufanele sikuvikele.

 


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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.