Iphutha likaSan Andrés

san andres iphutha ukuzamazama komhlaba

Isakhiwo sokwakheka komhlaba kuqweqwe lomhlaba wethu sinezimo eziningi zomhlaba. Enye yazo ukwehluleka. Iphutha elaziwa kakhulu emhlabeni yi Iphutha likaSan Andreas. Ingenye yezinto ezaziwa kakhulu ngesinye sezindawo ezihamba phambili eziqine ukwedlula zonke emhlabeni futhi yiyo edala ukuzamazama komhlaba osezingeni eliphakeme.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela konke odinga ukukwazi mayelana nephutha laseSan Andrés, yini iphutha nokuthi yiziphi izinhlobo zamaphutha akhona.

Kuyini ukwehluleka

san andres iphutha

Amaphutha we-Geological aqhekeka noma ayizindawo ezinemifantu phakathi kwamatshe amabili kuqweqwe lomhlaba. Kungukuyekiswa okwenziwa ukuqhekeka kwamatshe amabili amakhulu ngenxa yamandla we-tectonic adlula ukumelana kwawo. Lokhu kubangela ukushelela phakathi komunye nomunye. Ukwehluleka kungenzeka ngokushesha noma kancane, futhi futhi kungaba ngamamilimitha ambalwa noma izinkulungwane zamakhilomitha.Isibonelo, iphutha laseSan Andreas libhekwa njengephutha eliyingozi kakhulu emhlabeni.

Ngaphambi kokuba kwenzeke noma yikuphi ukwakhiwa emhlabeni ongathuthukisiwe, izazi zokwakheka komhlaba kufanele zihlaziye inhlabathi ukuze zithole ukuthi ikulungele yini ukwakhiwa. Amanye amaphutha abonakala ngokusobala, kepha ngokuhamba kwesikhathi, amanye amaphutha angaba sobala kakhulu. Yize kungebona bonke ababhekwa njengabayingozi, ukuhamba kwalomhlaba "wesibazi" akulindelekile.

Imbangela yokuzamazama komhlaba

ikhefu lomhlabathi

Amandla emvelo asuselwa kuqweqwe lomhlaba abangela ukuhamba kwamabhulokhi amadwala noma izindawo ezinkulu zamapuleti we-tectonic. Imiphetho nokwakheka kwalezi zingcwecwe kugcwele izigaxa, ubugqinsi nokungalingani, okwehlisa ijubane lokuhamba futhi kuqoqele amandla.

La mandla aqoqwe endaweni ethile kumele adedelwe, ngakho-ke azophuka ngokuzumayo futhi ashelele ngenxa yesisindo namandla adonsela phansi. Ekugcineni, Ukuhlelwa kwamacwecwe kuvezwa amagagasi okuzamazama komhlaba akhiqiza ukudlidlizela.

Yonke le misebenzi ayihlali ibonwa umhlaba wangaphandle ngesimo sokuzamazama komhlaba okunodlame, ngaphandle kwalapho ukunyakaza kushesha kakhulu futhi ibhulokhi ishibilika ngamamitha ambalwa.

Izinhlobo zokwehluleka

Kunezinhlobo ezintathu zokwehluleka emhlabeni. Ake sibone ukuthi ziyini:

  • Okuphambene: Futhi amaphutha okushelela mpo, umehluko ukuthi ibhlogo lophahla liyakhuphuka maqondana nelinye ibhulokhi. Amandla akhiqizwa yilezi zinhlobo zamaphutha makhulu, okusho ukuthi amabhulokhi amabili aqhutshelwa komunye nomunye, akha imbobo etshekile.
  • Normal: Kuyisilayidi ngokucwiliswa lapho ibhulokhi eyodwa ingaphansi maqondana nenye. Lokho wukuthi, ukunyakaza okuqondile. Kusuka ku-tectonic plate distension noma ngokwahlukana. Lezi zinhlobo zamaphutha zivame ukuba zincane, ngokufuduswa okungaba imitha elilodwa, kepha kukhona okuhlukile okunwebela amashumi amakhilomitha.
  • Kuvundlile noma ukuskrola: Njengoba igama liphakamisa, ukunyakaza kuvundlile, kufana nokuqondiswa kwephutha. Ingahamba iye kwesokudla, ebizwa ngokuthi yi-rotation yangakwesokudla, noma ingahamba iye kwesobunxele, ebizwa nge-synastral.

Iphutha elifundwa kakhulu futhi elaziwa ngokuvundlile noma lokufuduka yiphutha laseSan Andrés, elikhiqize ukuzamazama komhlaba ngenxa yokunyakaza kuya ekunyakazeni kwesokudla noma kwe-dextral.

Iphutha likaSan Andrés

Amapuleti eTectonic

Ngo-Ephreli 18, 1906, umhlaba walinaka ngokuphelele iphutha laseSan Andreas. Ukususwa kwephutha kubangele ukuzamazama komhlaba okuqinile eSan Francisco, e-United States, kubulala abantu abangaphezu kuka-3.000 XNUMX.

ISan Andreas Fault iyisigaxa esikhulu esisontekile esikhaleni soMhlaba, esingaba amakhilomitha ayi-1.300 ubude, esisuka emaphethelweni asenyakatho yeGulf of California sidlule entshonalanga yeCalifornia e-United States. Ukunyakaza kwama-tectonic okuqoshwe yileli phutha leminyaka eyi-15-20 yezigidi kudonse amehlo omphakathi ngenxa yamandla wokuzamazama komhlaba. Ngemuva kwalolo suku ngo-1906, ngo-1989 nango-1994, ukwehluleka kukhombise ngokusobala ukuthi kuzoqhubeka nokusebenza.

ISan Andrés ayilona nje iphutha. Imele amapuleti amabili amakhulu woqweqwe loMhlaba: ipuleti lasePacific kanye nepuleti laseNyakatho Melika. Ngokungafani ne-United States, ipuleti lasePacific lishelela eceleni. Ngakho-ke, ihlukaniswa njengokwehluleka ukushelela noma ukufuduka.

Izinguquko zephutha leSan Andrés

Iphutha liye laba nezinguquko eziningana ngesikhathi likhona, lihamba kuphela amasentimitha ambalwa ngonyaka, futhi lahamba kancane ku-6.4 m ekuzamazameni komhlaba ngo-1906. Abanye ososayensi ababambe iqhaza ocwaningweni lwabo bathole ngisho nokunyakaza okuqondile.

Kwezinye izifundo zamanje, iphutha laseSan Andreas ngaseParkfield, eCalifornia litholakale linokuzamazama komhlaba okungaba ama-degree ayi-6 njalo eminyakeni engama-22. Izazi ze-seismologists zabikezela ukuthi kwakuzokwenzeka kanye ngonyaka we-1993, kodwa akwenzekanga kwaze kwaba ngu-2004. Ngokwesayensi, leli inani eliseduze kakhulu, ngakho-ke le ndawo yaseCalifornia yasebenza ngocwaningo olubalulekile ngokuzamazama komhlaba nokuziphatha kwabo.

Ingozi yephutha leSan Andreas

ISan Andrés Fault iyingxenye yePacific Ring of Fire, ehlanganisa ngaphezu kwamakhilomitha angama-40.000 wezindawo ezinokuzamazama komhlaba okuvamile nomsebenzi wentaba-mlilo. Indawo yomlilo noma indandatho yomlilo isuka eNew Zealand iye eNingizimu Melika, inqamula eJapan ngasenyakatho, e-Oletian Trench, naseNyakatho naseMelika Ephakathi.

Eduze kakhulu nendawo yamaphutha eSan Andreas yiCalifornia, kanye nemiphakathi emincane enabantu abaphakathi kwezigidi ezingama-38. Ochwepheshe baxwayisa ngokuthi ukuzamazama komhlaba okubangelwe ukunyakaza kwamathoni okubekwa kwamaphutha kuzoba kubi kakhulu. Kodwa-ke, abantu kufanele bazilungiselele ukuzamazama okuncane okungenzeka kube njalo. Ngokufanayo, izakhiwo zesimanjemanje, amabhuloho nemigwaqo kuyakhiwa ukumelana nokuzamazama komhlaba nokumunca amagagasi okuzamazama komhlaba. Akunakwenzeka ukubikezela ukuzamazama komhlaba, kepha iqiniso ukuthi iSan Andrés isaphila.

Usongo izazi ze-geologists ezikhathazeke kakhulu ngazo luvela ohlangothini oluseningizimu. Uphenyo lomhlabathi lukhombisa ukuthi inyakatho yabhujiswa ngo-1906 kwathi ingxenye emaphakathi yacekelwa phansi eminyakeni engu-160 eyedlule, kepha iningizimu yagcina wonke umuntu eqaphile.

Kukhona ukuzamazama komhlaba eningizimu ekude cishe njalo eminyakeni eyi-150, kepha kudlule cishe iminyaka engama-300 ngaphandle kwerekhodi lokuhamba. Ngakho-ke, uma sekukhishelwe ngaphandle, ukunqwabelana kwamandla ngaphansi kungaba yingozi. Uma kwenzeka kube nokuzamazama komhlaba okukhulu okunesikali sikaRichter esingaphezu kwama-degree ayi-7, abantu baseLos Angeles bazothinteka kakhulu, okungenani abantu abangu-2,000 XNUMX abasengozini yokufa.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngephutha leSan Andrés nezici zalo.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.