Rutherford

u-ernest rutherford

Phakathi kwabafundi ababambe iqhaza elikhulu kwezesayensi emakhulwini eminyaka adlule esinawo Rutherford. Igama lakhe eligcwele ngu-Lord Ernest Rutherford futhi wazalwa ngo-Agasti 30, 1871. Wayengusosayensi waseBrithani futhi eyisazi samakhemikhali owanikela kakhulu emhlabeni wesayensi. Wazalelwa eNelson, eNew Zealand. Enye yeminikelo yakhe ebaluleke kakhulu kwisayensi imodeli ye-athomu kaRutherford.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela konke odinga ukukwazi ngempilo kaRutherford nange-biography yakhe.

URutherford biography

rutherford

Wayeyindodana kaMartha Thompson noJames Rutherford. Ubaba wayengumlimi nomakhenikha waseScotland kanti umama wakhe wayenguthisha wesiNgisi. Wayengowesine ezinganeni eziyishumi nanye futhi abazali bakhe babehlale befuna ukunika izingane zabo imfundo engcono kakhulu. Esikoleni uthisha wakhuthaza kakhulu ngokuphenduka umfundi okhaliphile. Lokhu kwamvumela u-Ernest Ngingangena ekolishi laseNelson. Yikholeji enesilondolozi esikhulu sabantu abaningi abanamakhono. Ukwazile ukuthuthukisa izimfanelo ezinhle zombhoxo ezamenza waduma kakhulu esikoleni afunda kuso.

Ngonyaka wakhe wokugcina waba ngowokuqala kuzo zonke izifundo futhi wakwazi ukungena ekolishi laseCanterbury. Kamuva eyunivesithi wahlanganyela ezahlukene amakilabhu ezesayensi nawokubonisa kodwa akazange ayishaye indiva imikhuba yakhe yombhoxo. Eminyakeni eyalandela wajulisa izifundo zakhe zezibalo ebonga umfundaze awuthola e-University of New Zealand. Kamuva wagqama ngelukuluku lakhe nokukwazi kwakhe ukuxazulula izinkinga ezahlukahlukene zamakhemikhali nezibalo. Ngakho-ke, angaba umfundi omuhle eCambridge.

Uphenyo lokuqala

ukuhlolwa kwamakhemikhali ne-physics

Uphenyo lokuqala lukaRutherford lwaqala ukukhombisa ukuthi i-iron ingenziwa uzibuthe ngamaza aphezulu. Imiphumela yakhe emihle yezifundo yamvumela ukuthi aqhubeke nezifundo ezahlukene nocwaningo iminyaka. E-Cambridge Cavendish Laboratories ukwazile ukufeza imikhuba yakhe ngaphansi kokuqondisa komtholi we-electron uJoseph John Thompson. Le mikhuba yaqala ukwenziwa kusukela ngonyaka we-1895.

Ngaphambi kokuhamba ayokwenza i-adventure yophenyo, wathembisana noMary Newton. Eminyakeni eminingana kamuva futhi ngenxa yomsebenzi wakhe waqokwa njengoprofesa eMcGill University eMontreal. Lokhu kwakuseCanada. Eminyakeni ethile kamuva, lapho ebuyela e-United Kingdom, wajoyina ithimba lokufundisa eNyuvesi yaseManchester. Kulapha lapho aqala khona ukufundisa amakilasi e-physics okuhlola. Ekupheleni UThompson wehla esikhundleni sokuba ngumqondisi welabhorethri yaseCavendish eCambridge University kwathi uRutherford wangena esikhundleni sakhe.

Enye yemishwana evelele kakhulu yalo sosayensi yile elandelayo:

"Uma ukuhlolwa kwakho kudinga izibalo, ukuhlolwa okungcono bekungadingeka." U-Ernest Rutherford

Ukutholwa kukaRutherford

imodeli ye-athomu

Ngo-1896 imisebe ye-radioactivity yayisivele itholakele futhi lokhu kutholwa kwamthinta kakhulu lo sosayensi. Ngalesi sizathu, waqala ukuphenya nokwenza ucwaningo ngokudlula kwesikhathi nokuzama ukuthola izinto eziyinhloko zemisebe. Uveze ukuthi izinhlayiya ze-alpha ziyi-helium nuclei futhi wamangaza wonke umuntu kwezesayensi ngokwakhiwa kombono wesakhiwo se-athomu. Yilapho imodeli ye-athomu kaRutherford ivela khona. Njengomvuzo, wakhethwa waba yilungu leRoyal Society ngo-1903 futhi kamuva waba ngumongameli.

Le modeli ye-athomu yachazwa ngo-1911 futhi kamuva yaphakanyiswa ngu UNiels Bohr. Ake sibone ukuthi yiziphi izinkombandlela ezisemqoka zemodeli ye-athomu kaRutherford:

  • Izinhlayiyana ezinesamba esivumayo ngaphakathi kwe-athomu zihlelwe ngevolumu encane kakhulu uma siyiqhathanisa nenani eliphelele le-athomu elishiwoyo.
  • Cishe bonke ubunzima i-athomu enalo bukulevolumu encane eshiwo. Lesi siga sangaphakathi sabizwa ngokuthi i-nucleus.
  • Ama-electron anezinsolo ezingezinhle zitholakala zizungeza i-nucleus.
  • Ama-electron ajikeleza ngesivinini esikhulu lapho ezungeze i-nucleus futhi enza kanjalo ezindleleni eziyindilinga. Lezi zinqola ezibizwa ngokuthi ama-trajectories zabizwa ngokuthi ama-orbits. Kamuva ngizo aziwa njengama-orbitals.
  • Womabili lawo ma-electron akhokhiswe kabi ne-nucleus ye-athomu elikhokhiswe kahle uqobo ahlala ebanjwa ndawonye ngenxa yamandla akhangayo kagesi.

Konke lokhu kuboniswe ngokuhlolwa futhi kwavunyelwa ukusungula ukuhleleka kobukhulu bezandiso zangempela zenuzi ye-athomu. U-Ernest wasungula inkolelo-mbono mayelana ne-radioactivity yemvelo eyayiphathelene nokuguqulwa okuzenzakalelayo kwezinto. Ukube wayehlala njengomhlanganyeli endaweni yokubala ngemisebe ngenxa yomsebenzi wakhe emkhakheni we-athomu physics. Ngakho-ke, uhlonishwa njengomunye wobaba balesi siyalo.

Umklomelo kaNobel eKhemistry

Iminikelo yesayensi yasiza kakhulu eMpini Yezwe Yokuqala. Futhi kungenzeka ukwenza izifundo ezahlukahlukene zokutholwa kwemikhumbi-ngwenya ngokusebenzisa amaza omsindo. Lesi bekuyisandulela sokuqala salezi zifundo, noma nje lapho ingxabano isiphelile, ukuthunyelwa kokuqala kokufakelwa kwamakhemikhali kwenziwa ngokuqhumisa i-athomu le-nitrogen njengezinhlayiya ze-alpha. Yonke imisebenzi emikhulu kaRutherford kusaboniswana ngayo namuhla emitatsheni yezincwadi nasemayunivesithi emhlabeni jikelele. Imisebenzi yakhe eminingi zihlobene ne-radioactivity kanye nemisebe evela ezintweni ezinemisebe ye-radioactive.

Ngenxa yolwazi aluthola ekuphenyweni kwakhe maqondana nokonakala kwezinto, wakwazi ukuthola umklomelo weNobel ekhemistry ngo-1908, ngaphambi kokushicilela imodeli yakhe ye-athomu. I-Element 104 yetafula lezikhathi labizwa ngeRutherfordium ukumhlonipha. Kodwa-ke, siyazi ukuthi akukho okuphakade futhi, yize lo sosayensi aqhubekela phambili phambili kwezesayensi, washona ngo-Okthoba 19, 1937 eCambridge, eNgilandi. Izidumbu zakhe zangcwatshwa eWestminster Abbey futhi lapho ziphumula eceleni kwalezo ze USir Isaac Newton noLord Kelvin.

Njengoba ukwazi ukubona, kunososayensi abaningi abaye banikela ngokuhlangenwe nakho okuningi nolwazi emhlabeni wesayensi futhi, ngokubambisana, basenza sazi ngokwengeziwe. Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi nge-biography kanye nemisebenzi kaLord Ernest Rutherford.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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