URosalind Franklin

Umtholi we-DNA

IMachismo idale izinkinga eziningi emhlabeni wesayensi. Omunye wabesifazane abafanele kakhulu emhlabeni we-biophysics ne-crystallography kwaba URosalind Franklin. Imayelana nokutholwa kwangempela kwe-DNA. Inkinga ukuthi ekuqaleni kwekhulu lama-XNUMX, abesifazane ababezinikele ekufundeni isayensi babenganakwa futhi badelelwa yizikhungo.

Ngakho-ke, sizonikezela le ndatshana ukukutshela konke odinga ukukwazi ngoRosalind Franklin nokubaluleka ayenakho emhlabeni wesayensi.

URosalind Franklin biography

indlu kasosayensi

Ekuqaleni kwekhulu lama-XNUMX, noma yimuphi usosayensi owayengowesifazane futhi owayezokwenza ucwaningo wayenganakwa ngokuphelele. Kwafika lapho babebukelwa phansi. Izikhungo kanye nawo wonke umphakathi wonkana bekugxeke uRosalind Franklin ngisho nokungaziwa ngokungaziwa. Phakathi kwempumelelo evelele kakhulu yalona sosayensi wesifazane siphawula ukutholwa kwesithombe sokuqala sohlangothi lwe-B lwe-DNA enamanzi. Ososayensi abathathu baklonyeliswa ngeNobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine ngemuva kokutholakala kwesakhiwo seDNA. Lokho abantu abaningi abangakwazi yilokho Eminyakeni eyishumi ngaphambili uRosalind Franklin wayesesitholile esinye isithombe.

Lesi sithombe saziwa njengesithombe esingu-51 futhi siyisiqephu esiyinhloko sokwazi konke mayelana ne-DNA. Lona wesifazane wazalelwa esifundeni saseKensington, esiseLondon, ngonyaka we-1920. Ubaba wakhe wayenakekela ukunikeza zonke izingane zakhe imfundo engcono kakhulu futhi lokhu kwenza uRosalind wakwazi ukukhokhisa izifundo zakhe zamabanga aphansi nezamabanga aphezulu ezikoleni ezizimele. Kusukela le ntombazanyana yakhombisa ukuthi iyintombazane ehlakaniphile futhi inothando oluhlukile ngentshisekelo yesayensi.

Phakathi kwezifundo zikaRosalind Franklin sithola ukuba khona kwakhe ezinkulumweni eziningi zika-Einstein futhi wayene injongo yokunikela ngempilo yakhe ekusebenzeni kwesayensi. Uqale ukufunda eyunivesithi futhi waba nentshisekelo ekhemistry, kwi-physics nakwimathematics. Ekuqaleni, ubaba kaRosalind, ebona ukuthi ufuna ukufunda isayensi, wenqaba ngokusobala. Futhi kungaleso sikhathi lapho abesifazane bengakwazanga ukuzinikela ekucwaningeni. Ubaba ofanayo wayefunde isayensi futhi wafunda isiJalimane ukuze azame ukuba ngusosayensi onekhono. Ngaphandle kwalokhu, wayengakholelwa ukuthi indodakazi yakhe kufanele izinikele ekwenzeni ucwaningo.

Izingxabano nomndeni

URosalind Franklin nezifundo zakhe

Le mpi ebangelwe imihlangano yomphakathi yamenza waba nobunzima obukhulu bokukwazi ukufunda lokho ayekufuna. Uyise futhi ubheke ukuthi imfundo ibaluleke kakhulu ebaluleke kakhulu ekukhuleni komuntu kanye nasekuthuthukiseni umphakathi. Ngaphandle kwezingxabano nomndeni, uRosalind Franklin wayenobuhlakani nokuzimisela okuncane. Konke lokhu kungeze eqinisweni lokuthi abazali bakhe babethuthuka emvelweni ukwazile ukutadisha lokho akufunayo.

Ekugcineni wakwazi ukubhalisa ekolishi labesifazane laseCambridge ngo-1938. Wenza isivivinyo sokungena kwi-physics nakumakhemikhali futhi wakwazi ukufunda lezi zifundo. Ukuxhumana kokuqala kukaRosalind Franklin ne-crystallography kwaba ngemuva kokutholwa kweBragg. Kukhonjisiwe ukuthi lapho ugesi we-X-ray udlula engilazini, ushiya uhlobo lwesiteleka sobunikazi. Uma ufunda le mikhondo ungabona ukuthi ukwakheka kwe-crystal molecule kunjani nokuthi ama-athomu ayo abekwe kanjani. Enye yentuthuko akwazi ukuyenza emhlabeni we-crystallography kwakuwukusebenzisa ama-X ray ukuthola izakhiwo zamakristalu. Ukusuka lapho, wanquma ukuzijwayeza ngokutadisha okuyizinhlangothi ezintathu kodaba olwalulukhulu kakhulu ngosayizi.

URosalind Franklin Imfundo Ephakeme

URosalind Franklin

Yize ukuthweswa kwakhe iziqu kwakungo-1941, akazange akwazi ukuthola iziqu kwazise wayengumuntu wesifazane. Wayenengqondo impela futhi enxeshezelwa futhi ngamamaki akhe aphambili wathola izihlonipho ebangeni lesibili. Le mibala imbonile efanelekile ukuthi akwazi ukwenza umsebenzi. Wakwazi ukuthola umfundaze omncane unyaka ukuze akwazi ukuqhubeka nokufunda umnyango wezocwaningo lwesayensi yezimboni futhi athole iziqu zobudokotela. Lezi zincwadi zanikezwa umfundi ongumbaleki ovela eMpini Yezwe II. Lokhu kungenxa ye- uyise wamcela ukuthi anikeze le mali umuntu owayifanele.

Ukupha kwakudalwa ukuthi ngo-1939 umndeni wakwaFranklin wawususondele kakhulu ekubanjweni eNorway selokhu iMpi Yezwe II yaqala ukubuyela ekhaya.

Lapho esefakwe emnyangweni wezocwaningo lwesayensi yezimboni, waba nenhlanhla enkulu. Futhi ngukuthi wakwazi ukusebenza nodokotela wamakhemikhali uRonald Norrish owayeyiphayona ku-photochemistry futhi wathola indondo yeNobel. Ngaphandle kokuthi uRosalind Franklin wayewuthanda umsebenzi wakhe, wayejabule impela. Ungaphila ngokuzimela efulethini eliqashisayo futhi lapho wayengathola abangane bakhe futhi ajabulele isikhathi sakhe sokuphumula. Konke lokhu kumsizile wangaguquguquki emsebenzini wakhe futhi ajabulele impilo.

Wakwazi ukwamukela umsebenzi wamalahle, owaba uphethiloli obaluleke kakhulu kwazise wawusetshenziswa njengesihlungi kumagumbi kagesi. Ngiyakwazi ukuphenya izinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zamalahle futhi ngaba negalelo ekwakheni imaskhi yegesi esebenza kahle kakhulu

Impumelelo yesayensi

Kuyo yonke leyo minyaka, bambalwa kakhulu abantu abathola iziqu zobudokotela. URosalind Franklin wayengomunye walabo ababekwazi ukuthola i-PhD yize wayengowesifazane. Umsebenzi wakhe ekwakhiweni kwekhabhoni ne-graphite wamsiza ekutholeni ubudokotela kwi-physics nakumakhemikhali. Wabuye wanikeza indawo yomsebenzi ayethulwe yona futhi wanquma ukushiya iNgilandi. Wakwazi ukuya eFrance futhi wathola umsebenzi omuhle. Ngibonga u-Adrienne Weill, umfundi kaMarie Curie, Wayekwazi ukukhuluma isiFulentshi futhi wafunda ngemisebenzi ehlukene.

Njengoba ukwazi ukubona, abesifazane nabo bakwazile ukufaka isandla kwingcebo yolwazi kwisayensi futhi bayasiza ekuyithuthukiseni. Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngoRosalind Franklin nange-biography yakhe.


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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.