Plankton

Plankton

Isixhumanisi kuxhaxha lokudla olwandle siqala ngezidalwa ezincane kakhulu ezaziwa ngokuthi plankton. Kungukuqala kochungechunge lwe-trophic olususelwa kuzinto ezincane kakhulu ezenza i-photosynthesis futhi esebenza njengesisekelo sokudla kwezidalwa eziningi zasolwandle. Le plankton ibaluleke kakhulu ekuthuthukiseni imvelo kanye nempilo yasolwandle.

Ngakho-ke, sizonikezela le ndatshana ukukutshela ukuthi yini iplankton, ukuthi ibaluleke kangakanani nezimpawu zayo eziyinhloko.

Yini iplankton

iplankton elincane

IPlankton yiqembu lezinto eziphilayo ezihamba ngokuhamba kwemisinga yolwandle. Igama elithi plankton lisho ukuzulazula noma ukuzulazula. Leli qoqo lezinto eziphilayo likhulu kakhulu, lehlukene futhi linendawo yokuhlala kokubili amanzi ahlanzekile namanzi asolwandle. Kwezinye izindawo zingafinyelela inani elingafinyelela ezigidigidini zabantu futhi zizokwanda ezilwandle ezibandayo. Kwezinye izinhlelo ze-lentic ezifana namachibi, amachibi noma iziqukathi lapho amanzi ephumule khona, singathola neplankton.

Kunezinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zeplankton ngokusho kokudla kwazo nezinhlobo zesimo. Sizohlukanisa phakathi kwabo:

  • I-Phytoplankton: Luhlobo lweplankton yesitshalo esinomsebenzi ocishe ufane nezitshalo ngoba bathola amandla nezinto eziphilayo ngokwenza i-photosynthesis. Iyakwazi ukuhlala kungqimba lwamanzi, okusho ukuthi, ingxenye yolwandle noma amanzi lapho ithola khona ilanga eliqondile. Kungaba khona phansi ekujuleni okungaba ngamamitha angama-200 lapho inani lelanga lincipha futhi lehla. Le phytoplankton yakhiwe ikakhulu ngama-cyanobacteria, ama-diatom nama-dinoflagellates.
  • I-Zooplankton: Kuyi-plankton yezilwane ezondla ngama-phytoplankton nezinye izinto eziphilayo eziseqenjini elilodwa. Iqukethe ikakhulukazi ama-crustaceans, i-jellyfish, izibungu zezinhlanzi nezinye izinto ezincane. Lezi zinto eziphilayo zingahlukaniswa kuye ngokuthi isikhathi sempilo. Kunezinto ezithile eziphilayo eziyingxenye yeplankton kukho konke ukuphila kwayo futhi zibizwa nge- holoplankton. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, lezo eziyingxenye kuphela ye-zooplankton isikhathi esithile empilweni yazo (imvamisa uma kuyisigaba sazo sokuba yisibungu) zaziwa ngegama le-meroplankton.
  • I-bacterioplankton: Yilolo hlobo lweplankton olwenziwe yimiphakathi yamagciwane. Umsebenzi wabo omkhulu ukubola i-detritus futhi badlala indima ebalulekile kumjikelezo we-biogeochemical wezinye izinto ezinjengekhabhoni, i-nitrogen, i-oxygen ne-phosphorus. Iphinda ifake emaketangeni e-trophic.
  • I-Virioplankton: yiwo wonke lawo magciwane asemanzini. Ahlanganiswe ikakhulukazi ngamagciwane e-bacteriophage namanye ama-alkal eukaryotic. Umsebenzi wawo omkhulu ukukhumbula kabusha izakhi kumjikelezo we-biogeochemical futhi ube yingxenye yochungechunge lwe-trophic.

Izici ze-microorganisms

iplankton ngaphansi kwesibonakhulu

Iningi lezinto eziseplankton ngosayizi omncane. Lokhu kwenza kube nzima ukubona ngamehlo. Usayizi omaphakathi walezi zinto ziphakathi kwamamitha ayisithupha angama-60 kanye no-mm. Izinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zeplankton ezingaba khona emanzini yilezi ezilandelayo:

  • I-Ultraplankton: Cishe zingama-microns ama-5 ngosayizi. Yizilwanyana ezincane kakhulu ezibandakanya amabhaktheriya nama-flagellate amancane. I-flagellate yilezo zinto ezine-flagellum.
  • I-Nanoplankton: Cishe zingama-5 kuya kuma-60 mitres ngosayizi futhi akhiwa ama-unicellular microalgae afana nama-diatom amancane nama-coccolithophores.
  • Microplankton: Banosayizi omkhulu ofinyelela phakathi kwama-microns angama-60 no-1 millimeter. Lapha sithola ama-microalgae angama-unicellular, izibungu ze-mollusk nama-copepods.
  • I-Mesoplankton: lobungako bezinto eziphilayo futhi bungabonakala ngeso lomuntu. Iphakathi kuka-1 no-5 mm ngosayizi futhi yakhiwa izibungu zezinhlanzi.
  • IMacroplankton: Siphakathi kwamamilimitha ama-5 namasentimitha ayi-10 ngosayizi. ISargasso, usawoti kanye ne-jellyfish kungena lapha.
  • I-Megaloplankton: yilezo zinto eziphilayo ezingaphezulu kwamasentimitha ayi-10 ngosayizi. Lapha sine-jellyfish.

Zonke izinto eziphilayo eziseplankton zinezinhlobo ezahlukene zomzimba futhi ziphendula izidingo zemvelo ezihlala kuyo. Esinye salezi zidingo zomzimba ukushuba kwamanzi noma i-viscosity yamanzi. Kubo, imvelo yasolwandle ibukeka kahle futhi ibenza badinge ukunqoba ukumelana ukuze bakwazi ukuhamba emanzini.

Kunamasu amaningi nokuzivumelanisa nezimo okukhuthaze amanzi antantayo ukukhulisa amathuba okusinda. Khulisa indawo engaphezulu komzimba, faka amaconsi anonile ku-cytoplasm, izikhali ezichithekile, ama-molts nezinye izakhiwo ngamasu ahlukahlukene nokuzivumelanisa nezimo ukuze bakwazi ukusinda ezindaweni ezahlukahlukene zasolwandle nasemanzini ahlanzekile. Kunezinye izinto eziphilayo

Ukuthi banamandla okubhukuda amahle futhi kungenxa ye-flagella nezinye izinto ezihlanganiswayo ezinjenge-copepods. I-viscosity yamanzi ishintsha ngokushisa. Yize singazivezi ngamehlo, kepha izinto ezincane kakhulu ziyakubona. Ezindaweni ezinamanzi afudumele i-viscosity yamanzi iphansi. Lokhu kuthinta ukuqina kwabantu. Ngalesi sizathu, ama-diatoms athuthukise i-cyclomorphosis, okuyikhono lokuthuthukisa ukwakheka komzimba okuhlukile ehlobo nasebusika ukujwayela i-viscosity yamanzi njengomsebenzi wokushisa.

Ukubaluleka kweplankton

Kuhlala kuthiwa iplankton yinto ebalulekile kunoma iyiphi indawo yasolwandle. Ukubaluleka kwawo kulele ochungechungeni lokudla. Imayelana nomphakathi wezinto eziphilayo lapho kutholakala khona ama-trophic network phakathi kwabakhiqizi, abathengi kanye nokubola. I-Phytoplankton iyakwazi ukuguqula amandla elanga abe amandla atholakala kubo bobabili abathengi nakubola.

I-Phytoplankton idliwa yi-zooplankton, bese kuthi, idliwe yizilwane ezidla inyama nezidla omnivores. Lezi yizilwane ezidla ezinye izinto eziphilayo futhi izinto ezibolayo zisizakala ngesidumbu. Yile ndlela oluvela ngayo lonke uchungechunge lokudla ezindaweni ezihlala emanzini. Ukuba isixhumanisi sokuqala kulo lonke lolu chungechunge, iplankton iba yinto ebaluleke kakhulu kuyo yonke impilo yasolwandle.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngeplankton nokubaluleka kwayo kuzinto eziphilayo zasolwandle.


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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.