Izilwane ezikhethiwe

Izilwane ezikhethiwe

El isikhathi se-quaternary eyokugcina ehambelana ne- Isikhathi seCenozoic. Yisikhathi esiqhubekayo namuhla futhi esaqala cishe eminyakeni eyizigidi ezi-2.5 eyedlule futhi ehlanganisa ukukhula komuntu. Izilwane ze-Quaternary zifundwe ngendlela eningiliziwe ngoba kulula ukuthola imininingwane njengale yakamuva.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela konke odinga ukukwazi mayelana nezilwane ze-Quaternary.

Isikhathi se-Quaternary

Lesi yisikhathi esinomsebenzi othakazelisa kakhulu wokuma komhlaba. Iyasebenza njengasezikhathini ezedlule, yize kubukeka sengathi yehle kakhulu. Ukuhamba kwamazwekazi kuhamba kancane, njengezinye izinqubo ze-orogenic. Izinqubo ze-Orogenic zibangelwa ukushayisana kwamapuleti we-tectonic. Kodwa-ke, kusukela kokubonwayo ezifundweni ezahlukahlukene, kulo lonke ikota likazwelonke kunomsebenzi omncane we-orogenic a.

Izinhlobo eziningi zezitshalo nezilwane ezingokwezilwane zaseQuaternary ezikhule kakhulu. Kuye kwabonakala nokwanda okuphawulekayo ekuqothulweni kwezinhlobo zezinto eziphilayo. Ngenxa yokushintsha kwesimo sezulu nokubukeka kwabantu, izinkulungwane zezinhlobo zezinto eziphilayo seziphelile futhi sesisondele ekuqothulweni kwesithupha emhlabeni jikelele.

Ngokufingqa, kungashiwo ukuthi kuyisikhathi esizolile kusuka endaweni yokubuka komhlaba. Ukwehla kwamazinga okushisa ezemvelo kuye kwaholela phambili, okwenza izingqimba eziningana. Kodwa-ke, manje siphila enkathini yezinhlanga esaziyo ukuthi Holocene.

Ezabantu nezilwane zeQuaternary

Ukuthuthuka komuntu kuyinto ephawuleka kakhulu kuzilwane zeQuaternary. Kulapha lapho okhokho bokuqala bomuntu wanamuhla bavele khona. Ingxenye yokuqala yokuziphendukela kwemvelo kwaba yi-Australopithecus futhi ukuziphendukela kwamanje yiHomo sapiens. Akufundwanga kuphela ukukhula komqondo womuntu, kepha futhi namakhono abo enhlalo.

IQuaternary iye yaziwa ngokuba nenani elikhulu lokuqothulwa kwezinhlobo. Lokhu kucishwa kwenzeka ngendlela ehlelekile ngemuva kokuvela komuntu. Okubizwa nge-megafauna okwakukhona ekugcineni kwePleistocene kuyanyamalala ngesivinini esisheshayo. Ochwepheshe babheka ukuthi imisebenzi yabantu iyimbangela eyinhloko yokuqothulwa. Lokhu kungenxa yokuthi abantu basebenzisa izilwane ukuthola izinzuzo ezifana nokudla, okokwembatha, ukwenza amathuluzi, phakathi kokunye.

Kunososayensi abaningi abethukile ngoba bafunde ngesivinini okwenzeka ngaso lokhu kucisheka futhi kuyinto enkulu kunazo zonke emlandweni. Ezingeni lapho izinhlobo zezilwane ziphela khona, abanaso isikhathi sokuzivumelanisa nezimo ezintsha zemvelo. Ngaphezu kwalokho, lolu hlu lwezinhlobo ezisengozini yokuqothuka lukhula ngokwanda.

Izimbali nentuthuko

Izimbali zibhekane nokwehlukana okukhulu ezingeni lezitshalo zasemanzini nasemhlabeni. Izinhlobonhlobo zezinto eziphilayo sezincike kakhulu esimweni sezulu futhi, ngenxa yalokhu, izilwane zenze izici ezithile ukuze zikwazi ukuzivumelanisa nemvelo ethile.

Amarekhodi ezinsalela akhombisa ukuthi kukhona inani elikhulu lezitshalo ze-thermophilic ezikwazile ukuzivumelanisa nezimo zokushisa ezedlulele. Ezinye zazo yilezo ezivumelana namazinga okushisa abandayo kakhulu. Isikhathi se-quaternary sidale i- ukubukeka kwama-biomes ahlukene anezici zawo zesimo sezulu. Lokhu ikakhulukazi kunquma izinhlobo zezitshalo ezizokhula kuzo.

Inani elikhulu kakhulu lezitshalo ezitholakala emhlabeni yizi-angiosperms. Yilezo ezinembewu evikelwe. Kamuva eQuaternary, amahlathi namahlathi aqala ukuvela, ikakhulukazi emazingeni asezindaweni ezishisayo. Ngaso sonke isikhathi lapho izitshalo zenziwe ubuchwepheshe obukhudlwana ezindaweni ezahlukahlukene.

Izilwane ezikhethiwe

ukuthuthukiswa komuntu kwezilwane eziyizikhulu

Izilwane azizange zehluke kakhulu kusukela ekuqaleni kweQuaternary kuze kube manje. Izilwane ebezikhona kusukela ekuqaleni kwesikhathi zikwazile ukusinda ngokuhlukahluka kwemvelo okuhlukile. Iningi labo lisale kuze kube namuhla. Kodwa-ke, kunezici ezithile ezibalulekile ongazisho.

Izilwane ezincelisayo kwakuyizilwane ezinokuziphendukela kwemvelo okukhulu nentuthuko. Njengoba kwavela iqembu lezilwane ezincelisayo ezinkulu, lalibizwa ngokuthi yi-megafauna. Phakathi kwama-megafauna kwakukhona izilwane ezincelisayo ezidume kakhulu ezaziwa njenge- amazinyo amakhulu, ama-megatherium namazinyo ama-saber. Isici esiyinhloko salezi zilwane ubukhulu bazo obukhulu nokuthi zazimbozwe ngoboya obukhulu. Lezi bekunguhlobo lokuzijwayeza ukukwazi ukusinda emakhazeni.

Iningi lezilwane ze-megafauna selivele lanyamalala namuhla. Umammoth uyaqhubeka nanamuhla ngezindlovu kanye nengwe enamazinyo ama-saber. I-megatherium yi-sloths yamanje.

Izilwane zaseQuaternary yizona esezike zacwila kakhulu. Ngesikhathi seHolocene, ukuphela kwezilwane ngenxa yokuthuthuka komuntu kuye kwanda. Abantu babhekene nokuqedwa okuhlelekile kwezilwane eziningi. Phakathi kwezilwane eziyizifanekiselo ezingasekho, singabala ama-mammoths, ama-dodos kanye nempisi yaseTasmania, phakathi kwabanye.

Ama-Amphibians yiwona asongelwa kakhulu njengoba kulinganiselwa ukuthi Ama-30% azo zonke izinhlobo zezinto eziphilayo anganyamalala eminyakeni embalwa ezayo. Ukuthuthuka komuntu kuyisici esinqumayo ezilwaneni zasekhaya. Yilapho ama-hominid okuqala aguqukela khona kuze kube manjel Homo sapiens. Ngemuva kwe I-Australopithecus i Homo habilis futhi kamuva I-Homo erectus. Le nhlobo isivele inesici esiyinhloko sokukwazi ukuhamba iqonde ngezitho ezimbili. Lokhu kwamvumela ukuthi abe nokubuka okubanzi kwawo wonke umhlaba omzungezile.

Ukwazile ukuthola umdlalo nokuzama ukuthuthela kwamanye amazwekazi. Yena I-Homo neanderthalensis kwakungenye yezinto ezikhethekile kakhulu. Lokhu kungenxa yokuthi umzimba wakhe waguqulelwa emazingeni okushisa aphansi. Bazisiza ngosizo loboya bezilwane ezizingelwayo futhi izingubo zabo zenziwa ukuzivikela emakhazeni. Cishe yonke imivubukulo yalezi zilwane itholakale ezwenikazi laseYurophu.

Kakade Homo sapiens Yiyo esungula imiphakathi futhi emake isigaba sabaphathi bezenhlalo. Ingqondo yakho ikhule ngokugcwele futhi ingahlaziya izingqinamba nezici ezahlukahlukene futhi ibhekane nezinye izimo eziyinkimbinkimbi ngokwengeziwe. Wabuye wakwazi ukuthuthukisa ulimi olukhulumayo.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngezilwane zeQuaternary.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.