I-Neutrinos

i-quantum physics

Namuhla sizokhuluma ngezinhlayiya ezingafinyeleleki kakhulu emvelweni. Sisho neutrinos. Lezi yizinhlayiya ezichazwe okokuqala ngqa ngawo-30 ngendlela yokucabanga ngososayensi obegxile kwi-quantum physics ebizwa ngoWolfgang Pauli. Kunzima kakhulu ukuthola izinhlayiya ngoba azihlangani neze nezinto ezijwayelekile.

Ngakho-ke, sizonikezela le ndatshana ukukutshela zonke izici, ukubaluleka kanye nokufuna ukwazi kwama-neutrinos.

Izici eziyinhloko

izinhlayiya ze-neutrino

Kunencazelo yokuthi kungani lezi zinhlayiya kunzima kangaka ukuzithola. Futhi ziyizinhlayiya ezingasebenzelani neze nendaba ejwayelekile. Ngaphezu kwalokho, banesisindo esincane kakhulu necala likagesi elingathathi hlangothi, yingakho igama labo. Ziyizinhlayiya ukuthi ingabhekana nokusabela kwenuzi futhi ingathonywa. Aziphazamiseki futhi ngamanye amandla afana ne-electromagnetic. Ukuphela kwezindlela zokuxhumana nama-neutrinos kungokusebenza kwamandla adonsela phansi kanye nokuxhumana okuncane okubuthakathaka kwenuzi. Akungabazeki ukuthi ziyizinhlayiya ezinelukuluku elihehe ososayensi abaningi abagxile kwi-quantum physics.

Ukuze kutholakale i-neutrinos, kungadingeka ukwenza iphepha lokuhola elinobukhulu bonyaka owodwa wokukhanya ukuze kuqinisekiswe ukuthi ingxenye yala ma-neutrinos adlula kulo angashayisana ukuze abanjwe. Ososayensi bathi kunzima kanjani ukuthatha i-neutrino. Ukuchaza lokhu, siyabona ukuthi emzuzwini ngamunye leso sikhathi sidlula izigidi eziningana zalezi zinhlayiya zidlula emhlabeni wethu nakithi ngaphandle kokushayisana empeleni. Aziphindanga zashayisana nokunye okunye, yize ezinye zazo zenza.

Thwebula ama-neutrinos

neutrinos

Ama-neutrinos angafanekiswa ngokusebenzisa imishini ye-quantum. Ngokwale migomo kungadingeka ukwakha ishidi lokuhola elinobukhulu be (9,46 × 1012 km ukuze ukwazi ukuthatha uhhafu wama-neutrinos adlula kuwo. Yize kunama-neutrinos angabonakali namuhla, sinezindawo eziningi zokubheka ezikwazi ukuzibona. Esinye salezi zingqimba saziwa njengeJapan Super-Kamiokande futhi siwumshini wangempela. I-Observatory itholakala eHida, isiqhingi esikhulu kunazo zonke eziqhingini zaseJapan.

ISuper-Kamiokande yakhiwe ngaphakathi kwemayini ukujula ngekhilomitha elilodwa. Lesi sikhungo sinezilinganiso zamamitha angama-40 ukuphakama namamitha angama-40 ububanzi. Lo mqulu uyefana nowesakhiwo esinezitezi eziyi-15. Kumele ubone ubukhulu bokubuka okudingekayo ukuze ukwenze kufilakisi ukuqonda ubunzima bokuzithola.

Ngaphakathi kwendawo yokubuka izinto asitholi lutho olunye futhi akukho ngaphansi kwamathani ayi-50.000 11.000 amanzi ngobuphofu obukhulu obuzungezwe amashubhu ayi-XNUMX we-photomultiplier. Lawa ma-photomultipliers ayizinhlobo zezinzwa ezisivumela ukuba sibone ama-neutrinos njengoba edlula emhlabeni wethu. Akukhona ukuthi ungawabona ngqo la ma-neutrinos, kepha ungayibona imisebe yeCherenkov abayikhiqizayo lapho bedlula emanzini. Amanzi ayinto ehambayo futhi uketshezi olubhekwa njenge-solvent yonke. Ngenxa yezindawo zamanzi, siyabona imisebe ekhishwa i-neutrinos lapho bedlula kuyo.

Izintshisakalo ze-Neutrino

ukubonwa kwezinhlayiyana

Into ethakazelisa kakhulu ngayo yonke le nto entsha ukuthi ososayensi basebenza ngaphakathi kwalesi sikhungo futhi batholile okuningana. Okunye kwalokhu okutholakele ukuthi ngokusebenzisa amanzi amancane namanzi amsulwa, ungabona ama-neutrinos abuye ebangeni elikude. Lokho kusho ukuthi, La ma-neutrinos angabonakala kulolu hlobo lwamanzi avela ku-supernova endala.

Ukungcola okungezwa emanzini ukuze ukwazi ukubona ngeso lengqondo la ma-neutrinos yi-gadolinium. Kuyinto yamakhemikhali eseqenjini lomhlaba ongavamile onomthelela ekufakweni emanzini. Lo mphumela wandisa kakhulu ukuzwela komtshina ukuze ukwazi ukubona ngeso lengqondo ukudlula kwama-neutrinos. Abaphenyi abasebenza kulesi sikhungo bangeze amathani ayi-13 enkomponi eyakhiwe yi-gadolinium emanzini ahlanzeke kakhulu. Lokhu kwenza ukuhlangana okuphelele kwalesi sici esisombululo esijwayelekile kube ngu-0.01%. Lokhu kuhlushwa kuyadingeka ukukhulisa isignali yama-neutrinos abuthakathaka futhi ngaleyo ndlela ukwazi ukuwabona.

Ukubaluleka

Ungacabanga ukuthi kungani ososayensi benza wonke lo mzamo wokutadisha intshisekelo ethile. Futhi ngukuthi, yize singakukholwa, ziyithuluzi elibalulekile elingasinikeza ulwazi oluningi mayelana ne-supernovae. I-supernova ukuqhuma okunodlame okwenzeka kulezo zinkanyezi ezingasakwazi ukumelana nengcindezi ngenxa yokonakala kwama-electron. Lolu lwazi lubalulekile ukwazi kabanzi ngokwakhiwa kwendawo yonke.

AmaNutrinos ahamba ngejubane elikhulu eduze kakhulu kwejubane lokukhanya. Siyazi ukuthi awukho umzimba onesisindo ongahamba ngejubane lokukhanya. Ngakho-ke, lokhu kukhombisa ukuthi i-neutrinos inesisindo. Ngenxa yalokhu, uchungechunge lokuphendula kwezinhlayiyana eziyisisekelo nakho kungachazwa. Ukubaluleka kwama-neutrinos afaneleke kakhulu kuyamangalisa. Lokhu kusho ukuthi ama-neutrinos anesisindo awalingani kumodeli ejwayelekile yezinhlayiya okuxoxwa ngazo ku-physics theory. Imodeli ye-classic quantum physics iphelelwe yisikhathi futhi kudingeka kwenziwe izinguquko ezithile.Imikhumbi yolwazi iyanda.

Iqiniso lokuthi i-neutrinos inesisindo lichaza izinto eziningi. Khumbula ukuthi imodeli ye-quantum physics inemingcele ephakathi kuka-14 no-20 futhi ayiyona imodeli ephumelela kangako yesayensi yamanje. Njengoba ukwazi ukubona, i-neutrinos inokubaluleka okukhulu emhlabeni we-quantum physics kanye nolwazi lwendawo yonke.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi mayelana nokuthi ziyini i-neutrinos, izici zazo nokubaluleka kwazo emhlabeni wezesayensi nezinkanyezi.


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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.