Neanderthal

indoda yase-neanderthal

El Neanderthal eyaziwa ngegama lesayensi le- I-Homo neanderthalensis kwakuyi-hominid eyathuthuka kakhulu eYurophu kusuka eminyakeni engaba ngu-230.000 edlule kuya eminyakeni engama-28.000 edlule. Yaziwa ngegama leNeanderthal futhi ngokungafani nezinye izinhlobo zohlobo lweHomo iye yathuthuka kuphela futhi yahlala ezwenikazi laseYurophu.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela konke odinga ukukwazi ngeNeanderthal nezici zayo.

Umsuka weNeanderthal

nandokuhle

Imvelaphi ingeyaseYurophu kuphela okwatholakala ubufakazi obukhombisa ukuthi uyinzalo ye- UHomo heidelbergensis, eza eYurophu ivela e-Afrika ngesikhathi se-Middle Pleistocene. Kwaba ngamashumi eminyaka ambalwa ebenobudlelwano, okuthi noma kungacaci kahle, ne Homo sapiens ngaphakathi komongo wokuziphendukela komuntu. Kukhona ukuhlaziywa okuningi kwamadiphozithi okutholakele futhi kunokungabaza. Into ejwayelekile kunazo zonke ukuthi bekuyizinhlobo ezimbili ezihlukene, okuthi noma zingezohlobo olufanayo, zahlala ndawonye ngesikhathi esifanayo.

Futhi ukuthi lolu hlobo lomuntu lwalunomehluko wokwakheka nokwakheka kwe- Homo sapiens. Umthamo wobuchopho wawumkhulu, wawudlula ngisho nowomuntu wanamuhla. Lesi ngesinye sezizathu esenza kube nokungabaza ngembangela yokuqothulwa kwayo phakathi kochwepheshe. Umbono ogqame kakhulu yilowo oveza ukuthi babebasindwe yisibalo se Homo sapiens lokho kwavela e-Afrika. Siyazi ukuthi leli zwekazi liyisizinda sobuntu njengoba kuyizinhlobo zethu ezavela kuleli zwekazi. Kusukela lapho, okhokho bomuntu banwetshwa baya kuwo wonke umhlaba beza ukuzowubusa ngokuphelele. Babengebodwa kule nqubo yokuziphendukela kwemvelo.

Ngale ndlela, eYurophu kungavela izinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zabantu zohlobo olufanayo. INeanderthal yayinamandla okuba uhlobo evelele. Izinhlobo ezavela kuzo kwakudingeka zishintshe indawo yazo yokuhlala ngesikhathi senqubo yokugodola. Lokhu kubenze ukuthi bathuthele eningizimu ngenxa yezimo zemvelo ezibandayo kakhulu. Emakhulwini eminyaka edlule bekunezimo ezahlukahlukene zokuhlukaniswa okwadala isidingo sokuthi sikwazi ukujwayela futhi sabangela ukuvela kwama-hominids.

Ngemuva kokuphela kweminyaka yeqhwa, baqala ukufana namaNeanderthal. Yilapho zizohamba zisuka ekubeni uhlobo oluhlukile luye kolunye. Wazalwa I-Homo neanderthalensis.

Ukutholwa kwabantu

zandisile

Yize yahlala isikhathi eside, ayikaze ibe nabantu abaningi. Kulinganiselwa ukuthi ngesikhathi sama-200.000 ebesihlala emhlabeni, besingadluli isibalo sabantu abangu-7.000. Lesi isibalo esincane kakhulu, ngoba namuhla noma yiliphi idolobha elincane linezakhamuzi eziningi kakhulu. Isikhathi lapho lolu hlobo luthola ubunzima baso senzeka cishe eminyakeni eyi-100.000 XNUMX eyedlule. Amathuluzi atholakele avumela ososayensi ukuthi baqinisekise ukuthi banamakhono aphezulu kakhulu okukhula kwengqondo.

Yize babenabantu abambalwa, izinsalela ezihlakazeke kakhulu zitholakele, okufakazela ukuthi zasakazeka kulo lonke izwekazi laseYurophu. Abanye ochwepheshe bacabanga ukuthi bebengafinyelela enkabeni ye-Asia. Ubudlelwano phakathi kweNeanderthal ne- Homo sapiens kwesinye isikhathi iphikisana nomqondo wokuziphendukela kwemvelo okuqondile. Iqiniso lihluke kakhulu. Izinhlobo zomuntu azikaze zikhule futhi ziguquke ngendlela eqondile.

Izinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zalolu hlobo sezihlanganyele iplanethi ezindaweni ezahlukahlukene futhi zahlala kwezinye izindawo. AmaNeanderthal ayehlala eYurophu, amaSapiens ase-Afrika nezinye izinhlobo ezifana noHomo erectus afinyelela eMpumalanga.

Inqubo yocwaningo esetshenziselwe ukufunda kabanzi ngalezi zinhlobo isize kakhulu ukwembula ukuthi umuntu wavela kanjani. Kuyindlela yokuhlaziywa kwe-DNA. Kuyaziwa ukuthi amaSapiens namaNeanderthal babekhona eYurophu ngenkathi uSapiens eshiya i-Afrika. Kepha kuncane okwaziwayo ngokuhlangana kwabo. Siyazi ocwaningweni olushicilelwe kuhlobo lwe-Neanderthal genome lokho umuntu wamanje usenayo cishe i-3% ye-DNA ene-Neanderthal. Lokhu kusho ukuthi kube nokubhangqa phakathi kwalezi zinhlobo ezimbili, noma ngabe kunjalo ngandlela thize.

Ukuqothulwa kwe-Neanderthal

ukuthuthukiswa komuntu

Iziphambano eziphakathi kwalezi zinhlobo ezimbili zaqala isikhathi eside kunokucabanga kwangaphambilini. Abantu balezi zinhlobo ezimbili babekhona endaweni efanayo eminyakeni engaba ngu-100.000 XNUMX edlule. Ukuqothulwa kwamaNeanderthal kusaphikiswa yimibuthano ethile yesayensi. Kunemibono ethile, kepha ayikho engatholwa njengeyiyo. Idatha entsha ivele ebonakala idlula umzuzu oqondile wokunyamalala kwalolu hlobo.

Kulinganiselwa ukuthi aqala ukunyamalala lapho iYurophu iqala ukuphola kakhulu, okwenza ukwehla kwemithombo yemvelo. Mayelana nesizathu sokunyamalala kwakhe, kukhona abanye ochwepheshe abakhomba ukuthi kungaba yizinguquko zesimo sezulu esizibalulile. Kunabanye ochwepheshe abaqinisekisa ukuthi isizathu sokunyamalala kweNeanderthal kungenzeka ukuthi kungenxa yokufika kwamaHomo sapiens. Le mbono ayisekelwe kahle kakhulu njengoba sibonile ukuthi kwakukhona iziphambano phakathi kwabo.

Ngakho-ke, i-hypothesis yokugcina evumelana kakhulu nokuzama ukuqinisa ukuthi inani labantu baseSapiens laba ngaphezulu kwe-10 kunelamaNeanderthal. Lokhu kubangele ukulwela imithombo yemvelo kanye nezinye izifo kuthinte iNeanderthal hhayi amaSapiens. Kulokhu sengeza ukweqa phakathi kwalezi zinhlobo zombili okusho ukunyamalala kwesidlule.

Ezinye izifiso

Phakathi kwezinsalela ezitholakele zeNeanderthals, sithola ezinye zazo ezinikeza imininingwane eyanele yokwazi izici zazo zomzimba. Babezivumelanise namakhaza ngoba kuzofanele baphile endaweni ephawulwe yiminyaka yokugcina yeqhwa. Lokhu kubangele ukuthi bavumelane nesimo sezulu esibi kakhulu ukuze baphile. Phakathi kwalezi zinguquko sithola isikhathi eside futhi sifushane. Ikhala liphinde libanzi ukuze likwazi ukushutha iphunga kude.

Abazange bagqame ukuphakama kwayo kwazise ibinobude obumaphakathi obungamamitha ayi-1.65.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngeNeanderthal nezici zayo.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.