I-Biography ka-Anaximander

I-Anaximander

Namuhla sizokhuluma ngesazi sefilosofi esingumGreki, isazi sejiyometri nesazi sezinkanyezi esibaluleke kakhulu emlandweni. Ingabe mayelana I-Anaximander laseMilethu. Le ndoda ithathe ubukhona besimiso sokwakha nesokuqala esivamile kuzo zonke izidalwa eziphilayo emvelweni. Lesi simiso sabizwa ngokuthi yi-arche. Ngokungafani nabanye abangane bakhe abakhomba i-arche ngento ebonakalayo, u-Anaximander nguyena owamisa njengesimiso sokuqala esaziwa njenge-ápeiron.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela nge-biography ka-Anaximander kanye nezenzo ezibaluleke kakhulu empilweni yakhe.

U-Anaximander waseMilethu

Anaximander nokuxhaphaza

Lesi sazi sefilosofi esingumGreki nesazi sezinkanyezi sakha njenge isimiso sokuqala esivamile kuzo zonke izidalwa zemvelo yenkawu. Singahumusha leli gama ngokuthi "okungapheli" noma "okungapheli." Wayengumfundi kaThales waseMileto futhi eyilungu lesikole saseMileto. Kuleli dolobha ayehlala kulo wayeyisakhamuzi esikhuthele futhi wahola uhambo oluya e-Apollonia, oluseLwandle Olumnyama. Usebenze njengosopolitiki ophethe izikhundla ezibalulekile kangangoba waze wanikezwa umsebenzi wokunciphisa inani lokuzalwa e-Apollonia. Le nkinga enkulu ngenxa yokweqisa kokuzalwa ngalezo zikhathi nokushoda kwezinsizakusebenza zokukwazi ukwanelisa izidingo zabo bonke abantu.

Kwakungenye yamakoloni amaningi okwadingeka axazulule inkinga yokwanda kwabantu emadolobheni ase-Ionia. Ukunciphisa isilinganiso sokuzalwa kwakuyinkinga eyinkimbinkimbi ngaleso sikhathi. Izakhamizi zamkhetha ngenxa yolwazi lwakhe kanye nokufaneleka kwakhe kwezepolitiki. Esikhathini esingengakanani esidlule kwatholakala isithombe lapho kuvubukulwa eMileto.

Kuyo yonke impilo yakhe u-Anaximander wazinikela ekwenzeni uphenyo oluningi. Olunye lolu phenyo bekuwukwakha ibalazwe lokuqala lomhlaba wethu. Le mephu bekufanele yenziwe kwamanye amabalazwe amancane nezindaba ezitholwe abathengisi abangamaGrikhi. Kuyimephu ebingenakupheleliswa, kepha kamuva nguHecateus futhi lapho isetshenziselwe khona uHerodotus. Ukuze enze le mephu, u-Anaximander kwakudingeka acabange uMhlaba njengesilinda esinganyakazi. Lo mbono wawuphikisana nombono ojwayelekile obheka ukuthi uMhlaba uthambile.

Eminye imisebenzi nayo kuthiwa yenziwe kuye, njengokulungiswa kwama-equinox nama-solstices nokubalwa kwamabanga nobukhulu bezinkanyezi. Ukunwetshwa kwesundial nakho kuyingxenye yemisebenzi ye-Anaximander kanye nomkhakha wesibhakabhaka. Lo mkhakha wasezulwini usetshenziselwe ukubona izinkanyezi ezithile esibhakabhakeni.

Ifilosofi ye-Anaximander

I-Apeiron

Lesi sazi sefilosofi sibe nokuqagela okumangazayo ngemvelaphi yezinto eziphilayo nomuntu. Ngokusho kwefilosofi yakhe, konke kusuka esimweni esimanzi. Kulesi simo, Umhlaba wawuyindawo ewuketshezi futhi ngesikhathi senqubo yokuhlukaniswa umswakama wanikeza abaphilayo. Ngendlela yokuthi amadoda okuqala abe nezinhlanzi nezinye izilwane zasendulo njengokhokho babo. Ngalo mbono wayebhekwa njengososayensi wokuqala futhi njengomanduleli wombono wanamuhla wokuziphendukela kwemvelo.

U-Anaximander wayengumcabangi wokuqala ongumGreki owayengabhala konke ukucabanga kwakhe kwefilosofi. Wayephethe incwadi yakhe lapho ayenezibonakaliso ezimbi kakhulu zokuhlelwa kohlelo lwangempela ngaphambi kuka-Aristotle. Kusuka encwadini yakhe ebizwa ngokuthi "On Nature" gcina isiqeshana. Kodwa-ke, unikezwe indaba ka-Aristotle okungenani ezinye izingxenye zayo yonke imfundiso ka-Anaximander zingabuyiselwa.

Ngaphakathi kwefilosofi yakhe wavumelana noThales waseMileto ekuvikeleni ukuthi kunesisekelo esisodwa kuphela, esibizwa ngokuthi i-arche, esasiyisakhi sezinto zonke. U-Anaximander ubize lesi simiso esiyisisekelo ngokuthi ápeiron. I-apeiron ibhekisele kokungenamkhawulo noma okungapheli. Lokhu, into engapheli, engenamkhawulo futhi engenamkhawulo futhi engunaphakade. I-apeiron ayinakonakala futhi ayinakonakala. Kule mvelaphi, ezinye izidalwa eziphilayo nendawo yonke kuvela kuyo futhi zingaphansi kokuzalwa kokunyamalala ngenxa yamandla aphikisayo phakathi kwazo.

Ukuqala kwakho konke

IMilethu idolobha

Wayenemizamo eminingana yokuthola umgomo ophelele. Ngenxa yalokhu ulandela njalo izingqikithi zefilosofi zaseMilesian. Ngokungafani nezinye izazi zefilosofi ezazizama ukuthola lesi simiso ngendlela enomkhawulo, ku-Anaximander lesi simiso sabonakala ku-apeiron ukuthi akubonwa ngokuhlangenwe nakho uma lokho okumele kubhalwe njengento ehlala unomphela futhi edlula konke wezwe elinamandla.

Kuyinto engachazeki esikhaleni nangesikhathi, kepha lowo mgomo wazo zonke izinto ungonakala futhi uchazwe. Kunemininingwane eminingi eshiywe ngaphandle kwezihloko eziyisihloko sesipiliyoni sethu. Ngalesi sizathu, u-Anaximander ube nemfundiso okunzima ukuyichaza.

Esikoleni, ucwaningo nge-arche lwaluzothatha isikhathi esiningi sezazi zefilosofi. Waqala ukufunda esikoleni sika Ama-Pythagoras Waqhubeka noParmenides noHeraclitus. Le nkinga, eqale esikoleni iMileto, yaba yindikimba ephindaphindayo kuyo yonke ifilosofi yamaGrikhi.

U-Anaximander wayengumbhali wezincwadi ezi-4 sezizonke. Esokuqala yilesi esivele sasiqamba igama elithi "Emvelweni". Kodwa-ke, wabhala ezinye izincwadi ezi-3 ezibizwa ngePerimeter of the Earth, On the Fixed Stars neCelestial Sphere. Izincwadi zika-Anaximander mhlawumbe zazingenaso isihloko futhi zamane zaqanjwa ngemuva kwesahluko sencwadi eyisisekelo. Okwaziwa ngokuqiniseka okuphelele ukuthi i-Anaximander ungomunye wabokuqala ukubhala incwadi yephrozi. Ukubaluleka kokubhalwa kweprozi ukuthi u-Anaximander uqhubeke nesiko likaThales njengesazi sefilosofi futhi wethula uhlobo olusha lwemibhalo. Lolu hlobo lusetshenziswe izimbongi nabafundisi abahlukahlukene kuwo wonke umlando.

Njengoba ukwazi ukubona, u-Anaximander ubelokhu eyisazi sefilosofi nesazi sezinkanyezi esibaluleke kakhulu olethe intuthuko eminingi emlandweni. Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi nge-Anaximander nangokusebenzisa kwakhe.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.