Konke odinga ukukwazi mayelana nentaba-mlilo yaseKilauea

Intaba-mlilo yaseKilauea

Intaba-mlilo yaseKilauea Ingenye yezintaba-mlilo ezi-5 ezakha isiqhingi saseHawaii. Kuyaziwa emhlabeni wonke ngokuba ngenye yezinto ezisebenza kakhulu emhlabeni. Igama lalo livela olimini lwaseHawaii futhi lisho ukuthi "ukuphonsa" noma "ukukhafula." Leli gama ngenxa yokuthi ingenye yezintaba-mlilo exosha udaka oluningi kakhulu kanye namagesi kukho konke ukuphila kwayo.

Kulokhu okuthunyelwe sizokwenza ucwaningo olunzulu ngezici ze-volcano nohlobo lokuqhuma okwenzeke ezinsukwini ezisanda kwedlula. Ngabe ufuna ukwazi konke ngale volcano edumile?

Izici zentaba-mlilo yaseKilauea

I-Kilauea ngaphandle kokuqhuma

Kuyintaba-mlilo okungokwayo eqenjini lezintaba-mlilo ezingamahawu. Imvamisa yenziwe cishe ngodaka olunamanzi kakhulu. Ububanzi bayo bukhulu kunokuphakama kwayo. Ngokukhethekile, ilinganisa amamitha ayi-1222 futhi ine-caldera engqungqutheleni yayo engamamitha ayi-165 ukujula namakhilomitha amahlanu ububanzi.

Itholakala engxenyeni eseningizimu-mpumalanga yesiqhingi saseHawaii futhi icishe ifane nentaba-mlilo eseduze ebizwa ngeMauna Loa. Iminyaka eminingi ososayensi bebecabanga ukuthi iKilauea iyinhlangano enamathele eMauna Loa. Kodwa-ke, ngezifundo ezithuthuke kakhulu bakwazile ukufunda ukuthi inekamelo layo le-magma elifinyelela ngaphezu kwamakhilomitha angama-60 ukujula. Le volcano ayincikile kunoma yimuphi omunye ukwenza umsebenzi wayo.

Ngaphakathi kwengqungquthela egumbini le-magma kunentaba encane eyindilinga engamamitha angama-85 ukujula. Kuyaziwa ngegama likaHalema'umaʻu. Lokhu kusho ukuthi ingesinye sezikhungo esisebenza kakhulu somsebenzi wentaba-mlilo kuso sonke isakhiwo. Umthambeka wentaba-mlilo awumqansa kakhulu futhi ungasho ukuthi phezulu kucabalele ngokuphelele.

Inqubo yokuqeqesha

Kwaqhekeka imifantu yaseLava

Isizathu sokuthi sibe ngesinye sezintaba-mlilo ezisebenza kakhulu kuso sonke isiqhingi saseHawaii ngoba nguye omncane. Izintaba-mlilo zinciphisa umsebenzi wazo eminyakeni edlule. Zonke iziqhingi ezakha iHawaii zitholakala endaweni eshisayo ePacific Ocean. Okwenza zikhetheke ukuthi lezi zintaba-mlilo azakhelanga ngaphesheya kwemingcele yamapuleti, ngokungafani nezinye eziningi.

Intaba-mlilo yaseKilauea iqhamuke ngale ndlela elandelayo. Imagma engaphakathi koMhlaba yaphakama kancane yaya phezulu lapho kutholakala khona indawo eshisayo. Ngaleso sikhathi, ngobuningi besisindo esivuthayo, uqweqwe lomhlaba alukwazanga ukumelana nengcindezi futhi lwaqhekeka. Lokhu kwephuka kubangele ukuthi umagma ukhuphukele phezulu futhi usakazeke yonke indawo.

Ngokuvamile, zonke izintaba-mlilo eziseqenjini lamahawu ziwumphumela wokuqongelela okuqhubekayo kodaka olunamanzi kakhulu. Lokhu kwakhiwa akwenziwa ezinyangeni ezimbalwa, kepha izigidi zeminyaka kumele zikudlulise lokhu kwenzeka.

Le volcano, ekuqaleni kwayo, yayingaphansi kolwandle. Ngemuva kokuqongelelwa kwe-magma, lakhuphuka lafika eminyakeni engaba ngu-100.000 XNUMX edlule. Lokhu kusekuncane kakhulu kwentaba-mlilo. I-caldera yaqala ukwakheka ngezigaba ezahlukahlukene eminyakeni eyi-1500 billion eyedlule. Ngakho-ke, umsebenzi wabo ujulile. Amaphesenti angama-90 ebuso be-caldera akhiwa ukugeleza kwe-lava okungaphansi kweminyaka engu-1100 ubudala. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, ama-70% engaphezulu lentaba-mlilo angaphansi kweminyaka engama-600 ubudala. Le minyaka iphansi kakhulu ngentaba-mlilo. Ungathi useyingane.

Uhlobo lwedwala oluvame kakhulu esingaluthola eKilauea yi-basalt ne-picrobasalt.

Ukuqhuma kweKilauea

Ukuqhuma kwentaba-mlilo yaseKilauea

Njengoba kushiwo ngaphambili, singenye yezintaba-mlilo ezisebenza kakhulu emhlabeni futhi besilokhu sisebenza kusukela kwaqhuma intaba yokuqala. Kwenzeka cishe ngonyaka we-1750. Iningi lomsebenzi walo wentaba-mlilo liphakathi konyaka we-1750 nowe-1924. Kodwa-ke, lo msebenzi ubukade umncane kunalowo wakamuva. Kufana nokuthi intaba-mlilo isaqala izinjini. Ngo-1924 kwaba nokuqhuma okuqhumayo kwathi kuze kube ngu-1955 kwaba nokuqhuma okuncane.

Ukuqhuma kwamanje kwentaba-mlilo yaseKilauea kubizwa ngokuthi yiPu'u O'o futhi kwaqala eminyakeni engama-30 edlule. Kwaqala ngoJanuwari 3, 1983. Kwabonakala ngokuvela kodaka oluncibilikisiwe kusigaxa esingamakhilomitha ayi-7 ubude. Njengoba iminyaka idlulile, ibilokhu ikhipha amahlumela athile odaka ngokuqhubekayo kodwa ngendlela ezolile.

Ukuqhuma kwamanje

Ukudlula kweLava

Kulenyanga kaMeyi 2018, intaba-mlilo yaseKilauea yaqala ukuqhuma kwentaba-mlilo leyo Kubangele ukuzamazama komhlaba okukhulu okufika ku-6,9 naku-5,7. Inani elikhulu lodaka oluxoshiwe, ukuqhubeka kwalo nokuvulwa kwemifantu emikhulu kuphoqe abezokuphepha ukuthi benze ukuthutha. Abantu abangu-1700 baxoshwa emakhaya abo.

Udaka lubhuqe cishe izakhiwo ezingama-35. Phakathi kwamadolobha athinteke kakhulu sithola iLeilani Estates neLanipuna Gardens, lapho udaka luhlanganise izindlu, imigwaqo futhi luqale imililo emincane. Ingozi yentaba-mlilo akuyona nje lava, kodwa namagesi akhishwayo. Uchungechunge lwamagesi lukhishwa ngokuqhubekayo ngemifantu elimaza impilo yabantu. Phakathi kwamagesi akhishwayo kukhona nesulfure dioxide, enobuthi obunamandla.

Ochwepheshe bathi ingozi yangempela yoqhekeko lapho laba bantu bezithola khona Akukona ukuxoshwa ngodaka, kodwa amagesi akhishwayo. Kukhona indawo enkulu kakhulu yokuqhekeka empumalanga, iyindawo yobuthakathaka. I-magma yaqala ukuthuthela futhi yaqonda kulolo hlangothi. Eqinisweni, ichibi lentaba yomlilo le-crater lehle ngamamitha angaphezu kwekhulu ezinsukwini ezimbalwa nje.

ILava ibuye ibe nezingozi ezithile, njengoba iqhuma izikhathi eziningana. Kodwa-ke, abantu bangabalekela kalula ukugeleza kodaka inqobo nje uma bengabanjwanga. Ukusondela kakhulu kungaba yingozi ngenxa yokukhishwa kwegesi.

Kulegalari yezithombe uzobona umonakalo odalwe intaba-mlilo yaseKilauea:

Kule vidiyo ungazibonela ukuthi udaka luqhubeka kanjani:

Njengoba ukwazi ukubona, iKilauea, enye yezintaba-mlilo ezisebenza kakhulu emhlabeni, yenza umlando omusha ezimpilweni zezakhamizi zaseHawaii.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe.

*

*

  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.