I-lithosphere

I-lithosphere

Njengoba sibonile esihlokweni ku izingqimba zangaphakathi zomhlaba, kunezinhlelo ezine zasemhlabeni: Umkhathi, i-biosphere, i-hydrosphere ne-geosphere. Ngaphakathi kwe-geosphere sithola izingqimba ezahlukahlukene lapho iplanethi yethu yakhiwe khona. Umuntu uzamile ukujula esebenzisa izindlela zokuhlola ukuze akwazi ukutadisha okungaphansi kwezinyawo zethu. Kodwa-ke, sikwazile ukungena kuphela amakhilomitha ambalwa. Kwe-apula, sidabule isikhumba salo esihle kuphela

Ukuze sifunde konke okungaphakathi komhlaba kumele sisebenzise izindlela ezingaqondile. Ngale ndlela, kuye kwenzeka ukuthi kutholakale amamodeli amabili achaza ukwakheka kwezendlalelo zomhlaba ngokuya kokwakhiwa kwezinto nezinto eziguqukayo ezilandelayo. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, sinemodeli emile lapho izingqimba zomhlaba zakhiwa khona: Isikhumba, ingubo kanye nomongo. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, sinemodeli enamandla lapho izingqimba zomhlaba zingu: I-Lithosphere, i-asthenosphere, i-mesosphere ne-endosphere.

Imodeli emile

Ukubuyekeza imodeli emile kancane, sithola ukuthi uqweqwe lomhlaba lwehlukaniswe phakathi uqweqwe lwamazwekazi kanye noqweqwe lwasolwandle. I-continental crust ifaka izinto zokwakheka nobudala obuhlukahlukene, kanti uqweqwe lwasolwandle luthande ukufana futhi lincane.

Siphinde sibe nengubo yasemhlabeni efane kakhulu lapho zikhona imibukiso ye-convection. Futhi ekugcineni umnyombo woMhlaba, owakhiwe nge-iron ne-nickel futhi obonakala ngobuningi bawo nokushisa kwawo.

Imodeli yeDynamic

Sizogxila kumodeli enamandla. Njengoba sishilo ngaphambili, ngokuya ngemodeli enamandla, izingqimba zomhlaba zingu-lithosphere, asthenosphere, mesosphere ne-endosphere. Namuhla sizokhuluma kabanzi mayelana ne-lithosphere.

imodeli enamandla neyi-static yezingqimba zangaphakathi zomhlaba

Umthombo: https://tectonicadeplacasprimeroc.wikispaces.com/02.+MODEL+EST%C3%81TICO+DEL+INTERIOR+DEL+INTERIOR+DE+LA+TIERRA

I-Lithosphere

I-lithosphere yakhiwa yilokho okuzoba kumodeli ye-static uqweqwe loMhlaba nengubo yangaphandle yoMhlaba. Isakhiwo sayo siqinile futhi sinobukhulu obungamakhilomitha ayi-100. Kuyaziwa ngokuqina kwawo ekujuleni okunjalo ngoba ijubane lamagagasi enyikima ahlala enyuka njengomsebenzi wokujula.

Ku-lithosphere, izinga lokushisa nokucindezela kufinyelela amanani avumela amadwala ancibilike kwezinye izindawo.

Ngokuya ngohlobo lwe-crust oluqukethe i-lithosphere, silihlukanisa libe yizinhlobo ezimbili:

  • I-lithosphere yezwekazi: Yi-lithosphere eyakhiwa uqweqwe lwamazwekazi kanye nengxenye yangaphandle yengubo yomhlaba. Kuwo kukhona amazwekazi, izinhlelo zezintaba, njll. Ubukhulu bucishe bube amakhilomitha ayi-120 kuphela futhi budala beminyaka yobudala njengoba kukhona amatshe okuthi engaphezu kweminyaka engu-3.800 XNUMX ubudala.
  • I-Oceanic lithosphere: Yakhiwa uqweqwe lwasolwandle nengubo yangaphandle yomhlaba. Zakha phansi olwandle futhi zincane kune-lithosphere yezwekazi. Ubukhulu bayo bungu-65 km. Yakhiwe ikakhulukazi ngamabhasalthi futhi kuyo kukhona izingqimba ze-oceanic. Lezi yizintaba ezingaphansi kolwandle lapho ubukhulu bungu-7 km kuphela.
I-lithosphere yezwekazi nolwandle

Umthombo: http://www.aula2005.com/html/cn1eso/04lalitosfera/04lalitosferaes.htm

I-lithosphere ihlala ku-asthenosphere equkethe yonke ingubo yangaphandle yoMhlaba. I-lithosphere ihlukaniswe ngamacwecwe e-lithospheric ahlukene noma ama-tectonic aqhubeka ngokuqhubekayo.

Umbono wokukhukhuleka kwezwekazi

Kuze kube sekuqaleni kwekhulu lama-1910, izinto zasemhlabeni ezinjengezintaba-mlilo, ukuzamazama komhlaba nama-folds kwakungamaqiniso ayengenayo incazelo. Kwakungekho ndlela yokuchaza ukwakheka kwamazwekazi, ukwakheka kwamabanga nezintaba, njll. Kusukela ngo-XNUMX sibonga isazi sokuma komhlaba saseJalimane U-Alfred Wegener, eyayiphakamisa iTheory of drift yezwekazi, kungenzeka ukuthi inikeze incazelo futhi ikwazi ukuhlobanisa yonke le mibono nemibono.

Lo mbono waphakanyiswa ngo-1912 futhi wamukelwa ngo-1915. U-Wegener waqagela ukuthi amazwekazi ayahamba ngokuya ngezivivinyo ezahlukahlukene.

  • Ukuhlolwa kwe-Geological. Zazisuselwa ekuhlanganeni phakathi kwezakhiwo zokwakheka komhlaba ezinhlangothini zombili zoLwandle i-Atlantic. Lokho wukuthi, amazwekazi abukeka ehlangana kanjani njengoba ayekade ehlangene. IPangea yabizwa ngokuthi izwekazi lomhlaba wonke elake lahlangana futhi okwakuyikhaya lazo zonke izinhlobo zezitshalo nezilwane emhlabeni.
Ubufakazi be-Geological ubufakazi bezwekazi

Amazwekazi ahlangana ndawonye. Umthombo: http://recursos.cnice.mec.es/biosfera/alumno/4ESO/MedioNatural1I/contente2.htm

  • Ubufakazi bePaleontological. Lokhu kuhlolwa kuhlaziye ubukhona bezinsalela nezilwane ezifanayo kakhulu ezindaweni zamazwekazi manje ezihlukaniswe ulwandle.
Ubufakazi bePaleontological bokukhukhuleka kwezwekazi

Umthombo :: http://www.geologia.unam.mx:8080/igl/index.php/difusion-y-divulgacion/temas-selectos/568-la-teoria-de-la-tectonica-de-placas-y -ukuqhubeka kwezwekazi

  • Ubufakazi bePaleoclimatic. Lezi zivivinyo zifundise ukutholakala kwamatshe okwethula izimo zezulu ezihlukile endaweni abahlala kuyo njengamanje.

Ekuqaleni, le ndlela yokukhukhuleka kwezwekazi yenqatshwa ngumphakathi wesayensi ngoba yayingenayo indlela okuchazwa ngayo ukuhamba kwamazwekazi. Yimaphi amandla ahambisa amazwekazi? UWegener uzame ukuchaza lokhu ngokuthi amazwekazi ahamba ngokwehlukana kwabantu nokuthi amazwekazi, njengoba eminyene, ashibilika njengokhaphethi phansi ekamelweni. Lokhu kwenqatshelwe yisikhulu amandla okulwa lokho kukhona.

Plate tectonics theory

Ithiyori yePlate Tectonics yaphakanyiswa kanye nayo yonke idatha ngo-1968 ngumphakathi wesayensi. Kuyo, i-lithosphere ungqimba oluqinile olungaphezulu loMhlaba (uqweqwe nengubo yangaphandle) futhi ihlukaniswe yaba izingcezu ezibizwa amapuleti lokho kuhamba. Amapuleti ayashintsha ngosayizi nangokuma kwawo futhi anganyamalala. Amazwekazi akulezi zingcwephe futhi ashukunyiswa ngu imisinga yombukiso yesembatho somhlaba. Imingcele yamapuleti kulapho ukunyakaza kokuzamazama komhlaba nezinqubo zokwakheka komhlaba kwenzeka khona. Umkhawulo ophansi wepuleti uyashisa. Kungukushayisana kwamapuleti okwenza amafolda, amaphutha nokuzamazama komhlaba. Ukuchaza ukuhamba kwamapuleti, kuye kwaphakanyiswa ukunyakaza okuhlukile. Njengoba amapuleti ehamba, kungaba nezinhlobo ezintathu zokucindezeleka emikhawulweni phakathi kwazo, okuvela ezinhlotsheni ezintathu ezahlukahlukene zemiphetho.

  • Imiphetho ehlukanisayo noma imikhawulo yokwakha: Yizindawo lapho kunezingcindezi zokuqina ezijwayele ukwehlukanisa amapuleti. Indawo yemikhawulo yokwakha yimifula yolwandle. Iphansi lolwandle landa phakathi kuka-5 no-20 cm ngonyaka futhi kunokugeleza kokushisa kwangaphakathi. Umsebenzi wokuzamazama komhlaba kwenzeka ekujuleni okungaba ngamakhilomitha angama-70.
  • Iguqula imiphetho noma imingcele eyonakalisayo: Zenzeka phakathi kwamapuleti zibhekane ngamandla okucindezelwa. Ipuleti elincanyana nelicinene licwilisa ngaphansi kwelinye bese lingena engubeni. Zibizwa ngama-subduction zones. Ngenxa yalokhu, ama-orogens nama-arches eziqhingi akhiwa. Kunezinhlobo eziningana zamaphethelo aguqukayo ngokuya ngomsebenzi wamapuleti:
    • Ukushayisana phakathi kwe-lithosphere yolwandle nezwekazi: Ipuleti lasolwandle yilona elihlula ngaphansi kwezwekazi. Lapho lokhu kwenzeka, ukwakheka komsele wasolwandle kwenzeka, umsebenzi omkhulu wokuzamazama komhlaba, umsebenzi omkhulu oshisayo nokwakhiwa kwamaketanga amasha we-orogenic.
    • Ukushayisana phakathi kwe-oceanic ne-oceanic lithosphere: Lapho kwenzeka lesi simo, kwenziwa umsele wasolwandle kanye nomsebenzi wentaba-mlilo ongaphansi kwamanzi.
    • Ukushayisana phakathi kwe-lithosphere yezwekazi nelizwekazi: Lokhu kudala ukuvalwa kolwandle olubahlukanisile nokwakhiwa kwentaba enkulu ye-orogenic. Ngale ndlela kwakhiwa amaHimalaya.
  • Imiphetho engathathi hlangothi noma izingcindezi ze-shear: Yizindawo lapho ubudlelwano phakathi kwamapuleti amabili benzeka khona ngenxa yengcindezi yokushefa ngenxa yokufuduka ngemuva kwabo phakathi kwabo. Ngakho-ke alikho i-lithosphere elenzelwe noma elonakaliswe. Ukuguqula amaphutha kuhlobene nengcindezi ye-shear lapho amapuleti ahamba khona ngezindlela ezihlukile futhi akhiqize uchungechunge olukhulu lokuzamazama komhlaba.
Imiphetho eyakhayo noma ehlukanisayo, ebhubhisayo noma eguqukayo yama-plate tectonics

Umthombo: http://www.slideshare.net/aimorales/lmites-12537872?smtNoRedir=1

Kukhona amandla okushayela abangelwa ukushisa okugcinwe ngaphakathi koMhlaba, amandla ashisayo alokho kushisa okugciniwe aguqulwa abe amandla womshini yimisinga ye-convection engubeni. Ingubo inamandla okuhamba ngesivinini esihamba kancane (1 cm / ngonyaka). Kungakho ukuhamba kwamazwekazi kungabaluleki ngokwesilinganiso somuntu.

Amapuleti weLithospheric eMhlabeni

Ipuleti lase-Eurasia

Isifunda empumalanga ye-Atlantic Ridge. Ihlanganisa ulwandle olusempumalanga ye-Atlantic Ridge, iYurophu kanye ne-Asia eningi kuze kufike eziqhingini zaseJapan. Endaweni yayo yolwandle inokuxhumana okwehlukile nocwecwe lwaseNyakatho Melika, kuthi ngaseningizimu kushayisane nocwecwe lwase-Afrika (ngenxa yalokho, kwakhiwa ama-Alps), nasempumalanga, namapuleti asePacific nasePhilippines. Le ndawo, ngenxa yomsebenzi wayo omkhulu, iyingxenye yomlilo wasePacific.

Ukhukhunathi nama-Plates aseCaribbean

Lezi zingcwecwe ezimbili zasolwandle ziphakathi kweNyakatho Melika neNingizimu Melika.

Ipuleti elinokuthula

Liyipuleti elikhulu lasolwandle elixhumana nabanye abayisishiyagalombili. Imingcele ebhubhisayo itholakala emaphethelweni ayo akha indandatho yomlilo yasePacific.

Ipuleti le-Indica

Kufaka phakathi i-India, iNew Zealand, i-Australia nengxenye yolwandle ehambelana nayo. Ukushayisana kwayo nocwecwe lwase-Eurasia kukhiqize ukukhuphuka kwezintaba zaseHimalaya.

Ipuleti lase-Antarctic

Ipuleti elikhulu elenza imingcele ehlukile elixhumana nayo.

Ipuleti laseNingizimu Melika

Ipuleti elikhulu elinomkhawulo oguqukayo endaweni yalo esentshonalanga, lisebenza kakhulu ngokuzamazama komhlaba nangokusebenzisa izintaba-mlilo.

I-Nazca plate

I-Oceanic. Ukushayisana kwayo nepuleti laseNingizimu Melika kwavela e-Andes.

Ipuleti lelayisense lasePhilippine

I-oceanic futhi ingenye encane kunazo zonke.Izungezwe yimingcele eguqukayo, ehlotshaniswa namagagasi angaphansi, nemisele yolwandle kanye nemengamo yesiqhingi.

Ipuleti laseNyakatho Melika

Endaweni yayo esentshonalanga ithinta ipuleti lasePacific. Kuhlobene nephutha elidumile laseSan Andrés (California), iphutha eliguqulayo futhi elibhekwa njengengxenye yebhande lomlilo.

Ipuleti lase-Afrika

Ipuleti elixutshiwe. Emngceleni walo osentshonalanga ukwanda kolwandle kwenzeka. Ngasenyakatho yakha iMedithera ne-Alps ngokushayisana nocwecwe lwase-Eurasia. Kuwo kuvulwa kancane kancane uqhekeko oluzohlukanisa i-Afrika izigaba ezimbili.

Ipuleti lesi-Arabhu

Ipuleti elincane emngceleni osentshonalanga lapho kuvulwa khona ulwandle lwakamuva kakhulu, uLwandle Olubomvu.

Amapuleti weLithospheric

Umthombo: https://biogeo-entretodos.wikispaces.com/Tect%C3%B3nica+de+placas


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  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
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  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
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