Kuyini ukujula okukhulu kolwandle

Kuyini ukujula kolwandle okwaziwayo?

Njengoba nje kufundwa izintaba eziphakeme kakhulu emhlabeni nokuthi ziyini iziqongo zazo, abantu baye bazama ukutadisha ukuthi yikuphi ukujula okukhulu kwezilwandle nezilwandle. Kuyiqiniso ukuthi lokhu kunzima kakhulu ukubala kusukela ukwazi kuyini ukujula okukhulu kolwandle Idinga ubuchwepheshe obuphambili kakhulu. Umuntu akakwazi ukwehla ngezinyawo noma ngokubhukuda ekujuleni kolwandle njengoba enza ngezintaba.

Ngenxa yalesi sizathu, sizonikezela lesi sihloko ukuze sikutshele mayelana nokujula okukhulu kolwandle, izici zalo nokuthi yiluphi ucwaningo olukhona ngakho.

Ukuphenya

izinhlanzi olwandle

Ngemva kwezinyanga zocwaningo, ithimba lososayensi lithi ekugcineni sesinokwaziswa “okunembe kakhulu” mayelana nokujula kweplanethi yethu. Ziwumphumela wohambo olujule kahlanu olusebenzise ubuchwepheshe obuthuthuke kakhulu kuze kube manje ukuze kumephu izindawo ezinkulu ezingaphansi kolwandle olwandle lwasePacific, i-Atlantic, Indian, Arctic kanye ne-Antarctic.

Ezinye zalezi zingosi njenge-Mariana Trench engamamitha angu-10.924 ukushona entshonalanga yePacific Ocean, zihlolwe izikhathi eziningi. Kodwa iphrojekthi ejule kahlanu iphinde yasusa ukungaqiniseki okusele.

Sekuyiminyaka, izindawo ezimbili zincintisana ukuthola indawo ejulile e-Indian Ocean: ingxenye yeJava Trench ngasogwini lwase-Indonesia kanye nendawo enephutha eningizimu-ntshonalanga ye-Australia. Amasu okulinganisa aqinile asetshenziswe ithimba le-Five Deeps aqinisekisile ukuthi i-Java iyona ewinile.

Kodwa ukucindezeleka Kumamitha angu-7.187 ukujula, empeleni kuphansi ngamamitha angu-387 kunedatha yangaphambilini ephakanyisiwe. Ngokufanayo, eSouthern Ocean, manje sekunendawo entsha lapho kufanele sicabangele indawo ejulile. Kuwukucindezeleka okubizwa ngokuthi i-Factorian Abyss, ekugcineni eseningizimu ye-South Sandwich Trench, ekujuleni okungamamitha angu-7.432.

Kulo msele ofanayo, kukhona omunye ojulile enyakatho (Meteor Deep, 8.265 metres), kodwa ngokobuchwepheshe use-Atlantic Ocean, njengoba umugqa ohlukanisayo ne-South Pole uqala ku-60º eningizimu ye-latitude. Indawo ejulile olwandle i-Atlantic Ocean I-Puerto Rico Trench engamamitha angu-8.378 endaweni ebizwa ngokuthi iBrownson Deep.

Lolu hambo luphinde lwahlonza i-Challenger Deep engamamitha angu-10.924 e-Mariana Trench njengendawo ejulile e-Pacific Ocean, ngaphambi kwe-Horizon Deep (amamitha angu-10.816) e-Tonga Trench.

Kuyini ukujula okukhulu kolwandle

ukuhlola olwandle

Idatha entsha yokujula isanda kushicilelwa esihlokweni kujenali ye-Geoscience Data. Umbhali wayo omkhulu ngu U-Cassie Bongiovanni we-Caladan Oceanic LLC, inkampani eyasiza ukuhlela i-Five Deeps. Lolu hambo beluholwa uVictor Vescovo, usozimali kanye nomhambi waseTexas.

Lowo owayengunogada wamasosha aseMelika wayefuna ukuba ngumuntu wokuqala emlandweni ukucwila endaweni ejulile kuzo zonke izilwandle ezinhlanu, futhi wawufinyelela lowo mgomo lapho efinyelela endaweni eNorth Pole ebizwa ngokuthi iMolloy Deep (amamitha angu-5.551) ngo-Agasti 24, 2019. Kodwa ngenkathi uVescovo ebeka amarekhodi kumkhumbi-ngwenya wakhe, ithimba lakhe lesayensi lalithatha izilinganiso ezingakaze zibonwe ngaphambili zezinga lokushisa lamanzi kanye nosawoti kuwo wonke amazinga ukuya phansi olwandle.

Lolu lwazi lubalulekile ekulungiseni ukufundwa kokujula (okwaziwa ngokuthi ukwehla kwengcindezi) kusuka kumsindo we-echo emikhunjini yosekelo engaphansi kolwandle. Ngakho-ke, ukujula kubikwa ngokunemba okukhulu, ngisho noma benesilinganiso sephutha lokuhlanganisa noma ukususa amamitha ayi-15.

Ukungazi ukuthi kuyini ukujula okukhulu kolwandle

Kuncane okwaziwayo okwamanje mayelana nolwandle. Cishe u-80% ongaphansi komhlaba usazohlolwa kusetshenziswa izindinganiso zesimanje zobuchwepheshe ezisetshenziswa yiFive Deeps. "Esikhathini esiyizinyanga eziyi-10, ngenkathi sivakashela lezi zindawo ezinhlanu, senze imephu yendawo elingana nezwekazi laseFrance," kuchaza u-Heather Stewart, ilungu leqembu leBritish Geological Survey. “Kodwa kuleyondawo, kunenye indawo entsha ngokuphelele elingana neFinland, lapho ulwandle lungakaze lubonwe ngaphambili,” enezela. Ngokusho kochwepheshe, lokhu "kukhombisa kuphela ukuthi yini engenziwa nokuthi yini okufanele yenziwe."

Lonke ulwazi oluqoqiwe luzonikezwa iphrojekthi ye-Nippon Foundation-GEBCO Seabed 2030, ehlose ukukhiqiza amamephu ajulile olwandle avela emithonjeni yedatha ehlukahlukene ekupheleni kwaleli shumi leminyaka.

amabalazwe olwandle

Ukuqaliswa kwalolu hlobo lwemephu kubalulekile ngezindlela eziningi. Yebo, zibalulekile ekuhambeni nasekubekweni kwezintambo ezihamba ngaphansi kolwandle namapayipi. Iphinde isetshenziselwe ukuphatha kanye nokongiwa ukudoba, kusukela it izilwane zasendle zivame ukuhlangana eduze kwezintaba zasolwandle.

Ulwandle ngalunye luwumgogodla wezinhlobonhlobo zezinto eziphilayo. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ulwandle oluyaluzayo luthinta ukuziphatha kwemisinga yolwandle kanye nokuhlangana kwamanzi ame mpo. Lolu ulwazi oludingekayo ukuze kuthuthukiswe amamodeli abikezela ukuguquka kwesimo sezulu esizayo, kusukela izilwandle zinendima ebalulekile ekunyakazeni ukushisa emhlabeni.

Amamephu amahle olwandle abalulekile uma sifuna ukuqonda kahle ukuthi izinga lolwandle lizokhuphuka kanjani ezingxenyeni ezahlukene zomhlaba.

Yini eyaziwa kuze kube manje mayelana nolwandle

kuyini ukujula okukhulu kolwandle

Isilinganiso sokujula kolwandle ngamafidi angu-14.000. (2,65 miles). Indawo ejulile olwandle, eyaziwa ngokuthi yi-Challenger Deep, ingaphansi kwePacific Ocean esentshonalanga ekugcineni eseningizimu ye-Mariana Trench, amakhilomitha angamakhulu eningizimu-ntshonalanga yendawo yase-US yaseGuam. I-Challenger Deep icishe ibe ngamamitha angu-10,994 (36,070 amafidi) ukujula. Yaqanjwa kanjalo ngoba i-HMS Challenger kwaba umkhumbi wokuqala ukwenza izilinganiso zokujula komthombo wokuqala ngo-1875.

Lokhu kujula kudlula intaba ephakeme kunazo zonke emhlabeni, iMount Everest (8.846 metres = 29.022 feet). Ukube i-Everest ibiseMseleni iMariana, ulwandle beluyimboza, ishiye cishe amanye amakhilomitha angu-1,5 (cishe imayela elingu-1 ukushona). Ekujuleni kwayo, izingcindezi zifinyelela ngaphezu kwamaphawundi ayi-15 iyintshi yesikwele. Uma kuqhathaniswa, amazinga okucindezela kwansuku zonke ezingeni lolwandle cishe amakhilogremu angu-15 iyintshi yesikwele.

Ingxenye ejulile yoLwandlekazi i-Atlantic itholakala eTrench enyakatho yePuerto Rico. Umsele ungamamitha ayi-8.380 (27.493 amafidi) ukujula, amakhilomitha ayi-1.750 ubude namakhilomitha ayi-1.090 (100 miles) ububanzi. Iphuzu elijulile yi-Milwaukee Abyss enyakatho-ntshonalanga yePuerto Rico.

Ngithemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi mayelana nokujula okukhulu kolwandle.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.