Kungaba khona into ka-El Niño engxenyeni yesibili yonyaka

into eyenzeka enganeni

I-El Niño yinto yesimo sezulu eshukumisa imijikelezo yeminyaka emi-5 kuye kwengu-7. Ngaphandle kokuzinza okukhona kulo nyaka ka-2017, iWorld Meteorological Organisation (WMO) ayikhiphi i-100% ukuthi lo mkhuba wesimo sezulu usengakhula.

Lo mkhuba ushaya imimoya yezohwebo ebheke ePeru nase-Ecuador, kudale izivunguvungu ezinamandla kulezi zindawo eziholela kwizikhukhula ezinkulu. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, eNdiya kubangela isomiso esinamandla esibangela izinkinga zokudla nezolimo. Ngabe into ka-El Nino izophinda yenzeke ngo-2017?

Kungenzeka kwenzeke

yenza kanjani ingane

I-WMO isungula amathuba okuba khona kwezimo ezithile zezulu ngokuya ngokuhlukahluka okuthile njengokushintshwa kwengcindezi, ukuqondisa komoya, iziphepho ezingaba khona, njll. Kungakho, ngokususelwa kubufakazi obuthile, ikhiphe isitatimende esithi kusuka phezulu kuya phezulu kungahle kube nezimo ezahlukahlukene zesimo sezulu kusuka ezimeni ezingathathi hlangothi kuya esiqeshini se-El Niño, kodwa ngamandla aphakathi nendawo.

Usho ukuthini amandla aphakathi nendawo? Yebo, izivunguvungu neziphepho ezingenziwa u-El Niño zizoba ncane kakhulu kunokujwayelekile. Umoya wezohwebo uzoshaya ngamandla amancane, ongeke udale izingqinamba ezinkulu kakhulu ezidala iziphepho ezinamandla kakhulu. Izazi zezulu zinamamodeli abikezela ukuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu kanye nemeteorology, futhi ngenxa yabo bangaqinisekisa ukuthi engxenyeni yesibili ka-2017 into ka-El Niño ingenzeka ngamathuba aphakathi kuka-50 no-60%.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, amathuba okuthi isimo sezulu sesigamu sesibili sonyaka singathathi hlangothi ngama-40%.

I-El Niño Phenomenon

isomiso esidalwe yisimo se-El Niño

Njengoba lo mkhuba, yize waziwa, kungaba nzima ukuwuqonda, ngizophawula ngokubuyekezwa okufushane. Lesi senzakalo sikhiqiza imisinga yamanzi afudumele olwandle olusenkabazwe iPacific Ocean. Lokhu kubangela ukwanda kwamazinga okushisa olwandle ogwini. Njengoba sazi kahle, umoya oshisayo uvame ukukhuphukela emkhathini futhi kulapho lapho, lapho ushayisana khona nezindimbane zomoya obandayo, ugoqana bese uqala ukukhiqiza amafu e-cumulonimbus abheke phezulu. Lawa mafu ngokuvamile ayimbangela yeziphepho ezinamandla futhi, kulokhu, imicimbi yezulu eyeqisayo.

Isiqephu sokugcina se-El Niño senzeke kwikota yesine yonyaka ka-2015 nasekuqaleni kuka-2016 (yingakho amazinga okushisa aphakeme aba nobusika) futhi saba nemiphumela emibi ezindaweni eziningi zomhlaba. Kufanele sinake ukuthi i-El Niño inemiphumela cishe kuyo yonke iplanethi, ngoba imisinga yolwandle iletha ukushisa kuzo zonke izindawo.

Umonakalo odalwe ngu-El Niño

ukubhujiswa okubangelwa izikhukhula nemifula ekhulayo

Yize into ka-El Niño ingokwemvelo, ngenxa yokushintsha kwesimo sezulu kanye nokwehla kwamazinga okushisa omhlaba iyaqinisa futhi inyuse imvamisa yayo. I-El Niño ngo-2015 yathinta abantu abayizigidi ezingama-4,2 eMelika Ephakathi, izigidi ezingama-4,7 entshonalanga yePacific kanye nezigidi ezingama-30 eningizimu ye-Afrika, abathinteka yindlala nokusweleka kokudla ngenxa yesomiso esathatha isikhathi eside. Ngaphezu kwalokho, kudale izimvula ezinkulu zasendaweni ezisuka eziqhingini zaseGalapagos ziya ogwini lwase-Ecuador nasePeru, Babangela ukufa kwabantu abayi-101, abangu-19 banyamalala, abangu-353 balimala, izisulu ezingu-140.000 kwathi ababalelwa ku-940.000 bathinteka.

Njengamanje, izimo zokufudumala kwenqwaba yolwandle engxenyeni esempumalanga yePacific ezithinte kakhulu iPeru namazwe asondelene nayo zinciphile. Lokhu kubangela ukuthi izimo ze-El Niño zingathathi hlangothi.

Isimo seLa Niña

imiphumela nezikhukhula ezibangelwe yisimo se-El Niño

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, ochwepheshe bezimo zezulu be-WMO bathe umcimbi waseLa Niña cishe awunakwenzeka. Ngokungafani no-El Niño obangela ukwanda kwamazinga okushisa kwabantu basePacific, ILa Niña ibangela ukwehla kuzo. Kungakho ezinye izifunda ezihlaselwa yisomiso lapho kwenzeka i-El Niño zivame ukuhlupheka ngenxa yemvula enkulu ebenza bakhuphukele kwisilinganiso esijwayelekile noma okuphambene nalokho.

ILa Niña nayo ihlotshaniswa nokwanda kwesiphepho e-Atlantic Ocean.

 


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

*

*

  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.