Iziphuphutheki zokwenziwa

Uma sikhuluma ngeziphuphutheki zemvelo, asibhekiseli kulezo zinto ezisemkhathini ezisemkhathini zihamba phezu komunye umzimba omkhulu wasezulwini. Kodwa-ke, lapho sikhuluma nge iziphuphutheki zokwenziwa sikhuluma nganoma iyiphi into engeyona eyemvelo ezungeza umzimba wasezulwini. Lezi zinto zivame ukuba nenhloso ethile njengokuqonda kangcono indawo yonke. Zizalwa njengomphumela wobuchwepheshe besintu futhi zisetshenziselwa ukuthola imininingwane ngomzimba wasezulwini ewufundayo. Iningi lama-satellite okwenziwa azungeza iplanethi yoMhlaba. Zibaluleke kakhulu ekuthuthukisweni kobuchwepheshe besintu futhi namhlanje besingeke siphile ngaphandle kwazo.

Ngakho-ke, sizonikezela le ndatshana ukukutshela konke odinga ukukwazi ngamasathelayithi okufakelwa.

Izici eziyinhloko

Iziphuphutheki zokwenziwa

Ngokungafani nokwenzeka ngamasathelayithi emvelo njengenyanga, iziphuphutheki zokwenziwa zakhiwa ngabantu. Lezi zihamba zizungeze into enkulu kunazo kwazise zikhangwa amandla adonsela phansi. Imvamisa imishini eyindida kakhulu enobuchwepheshe bokuguqula isimo. Bathunyelwa emkhathini ukuze bathole inani elikhulu lolwazi mayelana nomhlaba wethu. Singasho ukuthi imfucumfucu noma izinsalela zeminye imishini, imikhumbi-mkhathi ephethwe osomkhathi, iziteshi ezisemkhathini kanye nama-probe eplanethi ayibhekwa njengeziphuphutheki.

Phakathi kwezimpawu eziphambili esizithola ngalezi zinto ukuthi zethulwa ngamarokhethi. Amarokhethi awalutho ngaphezu kwanoma iyiphi imoto enjengemicibisholo, umkhumbi-mkhathi noma indiza ehambisa isathelayithi phezulu. Zenzelwe ukulandela umzila ngokwalokho okusunguliwe. Banomsebenzi omkhulu noma umsebenzi okufanele bawufeze, njengokubuka amafu, isibonelo. Iningi leziphuphutheki ezenziwe ngabantu lokho orbit iplanethi yethu ihlale izungezile izungeza ngokuqhubekayo. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, sinamasathelayithi athunyelwa kwamanye amaplanethi noma izidalwa zasezulwini okumele zilandelwe ukuze kutholakale ulwazi nokuqapha.

Ukusetshenziswa kwama-satellite okwenziwa

Kunezinhlobo eziningana eziyisisekelo zama-satellite okwenziwa azungeza uMhlaba: ama-satellite geostationary nama-satellite polar. Lezi yizona eziyinhloko ngokusho kwazo. Uma sifuna ukwenza imephu futhi sithole imininingwane ethile mayelana noMhlaba noma amanye amaplanethi, lawa masathelayithi ayasetshenziswa. Isibonelo, uhlelo lokubeka umhlaba jikelele olwaziwa njenge-GPS itholakala ngenxa yenethiwekhi yama-satellite okwenziwa azungeza iplanethi yoMhlaba. Leli qembu leziphuphutheki linquma indawo nendawo yento emhlabeni ngokusebenzisa izinhlelo zokuxhumana ngocingo. Lezi zinhlelo zifaka phakathi ithelevishini nomakhalekhukhwini.

Phakathi kokusetshenziswa esikuthola kuma-satellite okwenziwa kukhona izinhloso zesayensi nezisetshenzisiwe. Ezinye izibonelo zokusetshenziswa kwesayensi ukutadisha umkhathi, imisebe yelanga, amaplanethi, njll. Ezinye izibonelo zokusetshenziswa okusetshenzisiwe ukubonwa kwesimo sezulu, ubuhloli bezempi, ukuzwa kude nokuxhumana ngocingo, phakathi kwabanye.

Kumele kucatshangwe ukuthi amabanga lapho ama-satellite e-geostationary ne-polar ahlukile khona. Abanye bakude ngamakhilomitha angama-240, kanti abanye basemabangeni wosuku afinyelela kumakhilomitha angama-36.200. Uhlobo ngalunye lwesathelayithi luyoba nezinzuzo nokunye okungekuhle kuye ngokusetshenziswa kwalo. Iningi leziphuphutheki ezijikeleza uMhlaba zihlala ebangeni elingamakhilomitha angama-800 futhi zihamba ngejubane elingamakhilomitha angama-27,400 ngehora. Isivinini abasinyakazayo siyadingeka ukuze amandla adonsela phansi angabuyiseli phansi.

La masathelayithi okufakelwa aqukethe izingxenye ezimbili eziyisisekelo: i-antenna namandla. I-antenna iphethe ukuthumela nokwamukela imininingwane okukhulunywa ngayo. Umthombo wamandla kungaba zombili amabhethri namaphaneli elanga. Lokhu kuyadingeka ukuze umshini uqhubeke nokusebenza.

Izinhlobo zeziphuphutheki zokwenziwa

Njengoba sishilo ngaphambili, kunezinhlobo ezimbili eziyisisekelo zeziphuphutheki ezizungeza uMhlaba. Zimi kanje:

  • I-Geostationary: Yilezo ezihamba ziqonde ngasempumalanga nentshonalanga ngenhla kwe-Equator. Zilandela inkomba nokushesha kokujikeleza komhlaba.
  • I-Polar: zibizwa kanjalo ngoba zihamba zisuka kwesinye isigxobo ziya kwesinye zibheke enyakatho-ningizimu.

Ngaphakathi kwalezi zinhlobo ezimbili eziyisisekelo sinezinhlobo ezithile zeziphuphutheki ezibhekele ukubuka nokubona izici zomkhathi, izilwandle nezinhlabathi zomhlaba. Zibhekwa ngegama lama-satellite ezemvelo. Zingahlukaniswa zibe ezinye izinhlobo ezifana ziyi-geosynchronous ne-heliosynchronous. Esokuqala yileso esizungeza iplanethi ngejubane elifanayo nokujikeleza komhlaba. Imizuzwana yilezo ezidlula usuku ngalunye ngasikhathi sinye endaweni ethile emhlabeni. Iningi leziphuphutheki ezisetshenziselwa ezokuxhumana ngocingo ukubikezela isimo sezulu ziyi-geosynchronous.

Imfucumfucu yesikhala nemithelela

Asinakuphika ukuthi iziphuphutheki zokuzenzela zikuthuthukisile impilo yomuntu kude kakhulu. Kodwa-ke, i-satellite ingahlakazeka emkhathini lapho ibuya. Ngemuva kokuqeda isikhathi sayo sokusebenziseka noma uqoqe yonke imininingwane edingekayo, unezinketho eziningi. Ingabuya futhi ihlakazeke iye emkhathini noma ungaba yinkungu yomkhathi ngoba uhlala uzungeza umzimba wasezulwini ngaphandle kokuwusebenzisa. Endabeni lapho isathelayithi iphansi, ijwayele ukuhlakazeka ingene emkhathini ngezingxenye ezahlukahlukene.

Isibalo esikhulu seziphuphutheki ezifakelwa umhlaba ngaphandle kwanoma iyiphi into esetshenziswayo sikhulu. Kungakho le sethi yama-satellite ibizwa ngokuthi i-space junk. Iziphuphutheki zokwenziwa ezingafakwa ku-orbit zibalulekile empilweni yomphakathi. Lokhu kudala umthelela omuhle kumuntu. Ngenxa yalokhu, singakwazi ukuhlola amanye amaplanethi, sithole ama-meteorite, sibheke impilo eMhlabeni futhi sithole imininingwane ngokuhlukahluka kwesimo sezulu kwephuzu elithile emhlabeni.

Ngokombono wezomnotho nokuxhumana, ziyasetshenziswa futhi ukwamukela amasiginali wethelevishini, umsakazo, i-inthanethi nezingcingo. Namuhla besingeke siphile ngaphandle kwabo.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngama-satellite okwenziwa.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.