Izintaba

Izintaba zaseHimalaya

I-Las izintaba Ziyizikhulu ezinkulu zezintaba ezixhunyiwe, okuvame ukusebenza njengemingcele yezwe phakathi kwamazwe. Zivela ezindaweni lapho inhlabathi iguquka khona ngokuhamba kwamapuleti we-tectonic, okwenza ukuthi izidalwa zicindezeleke, zikhuphuke ebusweni bomhlaba futhi zivela ezinhlakeni ezahlukahlukene zezintaba. Izintaba zivame ukuba neziqongo. Ukuphakama kweziduli zalo kungathatha ukwakheka nobukhulu obuhlukahlukene, njengezintaba, amabanga, amagquma, izintaba, noma amagquma.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela konke odinga ukukwazi ngezintaba, ukwakheka kwazo, isimo sezulu nezinhlobo zazo.

Ukwakheka kwezintaba

izintaba

Izintaba zakhiwa ukunyakaza kwamapuleti omhlaba we-tectonic, ahlangana, agoqwe, futhi akhubazeke aze aphakame ngaphezu koqweqwe lomhlaba. Ama-sediment atholakala ngaphezulu athinteka yizimo zangaphandle, njenge ukushisa okuphezulu, ukuguguleka kwenhlabathi yomoya, ukuguguleka amanzi, njll

Izintaba zingabuye zikhiqizwe kusuka ekukhuphukeni kwamanzi. Lokhu kwenzeka esiqhingini saseHawaii naseziqhingini ezisizungezile, ezakha uhlelo lwezintaba ngaphansi kolwandle, futhi iziqongo zazo zivela ngaphezu kogu lolwandle ukwakha iqembu leziqhingi.

Intaba ephakeme kunazo zonke emhlabeni eyatholwa yiMauna Kea eHawaii. Iqukethe i- intaba-mlilo elele eyacwila olwandle iPacific. Kunamamitha ayi-10.203 ukusuka ezansi kuye phezulu, kepha ukuphakama ngamamitha angu-4.205. Intaba ephakeme kakhulu ngokwamazinga olwandle yiMount Everest, amamitha angama-8850 ngaphezu kogu lolwandle.

Isimo sezulu

Izintaba ze-Andes

Ukuphakama kwengcindezi yasemkhathini, umoya-mpilo omncane uyatholakala.

Isimo sezulu sezintaba (esibizwa nangokuthi isimo sezulu sasezintabeni) siyehluka ngendawo, ubume bendawo, nokuphakama kwezintaba. Isimo sezulu esizungezile sithinta ukushisa kwentaba kusuka enyaweni yentaba kuye ekuphakameni okulingene, ukuphakama kwesiqongo sentaba, kukhulu ukuphikisana nesimo sezulu sesifunda.

Kusuka kumamitha ayi-1.200 ngaphezulu kogu lolwandle, izinga lokushisa liya libanda futhi libe nomswakama ngokwengeziwe, futhi imvula iba ningi. Ingcindezi yasemkhathini iyancipha ngenxa yokwanda kokuphakama, okusho ukuthi umfutho womoya uyehla futhi wehla, futhi kunzima ukuthi izinto eziphilayo ziphefumule njengoba zikhuphuka.

Izibonelo

I-Cantabrian

I-sierra iyisiqeshana sezintaba ezincane ezisezintabeni ezinkulu. Izintaba ebonakala ngokuphakama okungajwayelekile noma okuhluke kakhulu, kepha ngobude obuphakathi.

Isibonelo yiSierra Negra, eMexico, esendaweni ephakathi kwezifunda zaseVeracruz nePuebla (ingxenye yezintaba zeNew Volcanic). Iqukethe intaba-mlilo engasekho futhi iyintaba yesihlanu ephakeme kunazo zonke ezweni enamamitha angu-4.640 ukuphakama. Kuyindawo enhle yezivakashi yokuhamba ngebhayisikili nokuhamba izintaba.

Izintaba ze-Andes

I-Andes iyintaba yesibili ephakeme kunazo zonke ngemuva kwama-Himalaya. Kuyindlela enezintaba eNingizimu Melika. Uhla olude kakhulu lwezintaba emhlabeni, olunobude obuphelele bamakhilomitha angama-8.500 4.000 nokuphakama okulingene kwamamitha ayi-XNUMX, luyintaba yesibili ephakeme kunazo zonke emva kwamaHimalaya. Ukuphakama kwayo okuphezulu yi-Aconcagua, okungamamitha ayi-6,960 ngaphezu kogu lolwandle. Itholakala endaweni enomsebenzi omkhulu wokuzamazama komhlaba kanye nentaba-mlilo.

Ama-Andes akhiwa esikhathini seMesozoic. Isuka esifundeni samanje saseVenezuela saseTáchira siye eTierra del Fuego e-Argentina (ngeColombia, e-Ecuador, ePeru, eBolivia naseChile). Uhambo lwakhe lwaqhubekela eningizimu, akha intaba engaphansi kwamanzi ebizwa nge "Arco de las Antillas del Sur" noma "Arco de Scotia", ezinye iziqongo zayo zavela olwandle zakha iziqhingi ezincane.

Himalaya

Ukuphakama okujwayelekile kwama-Himalaya kungu-6.100 m. Itholakala e-Asia futhi iyichungechunge lwezintaba eziphakeme kunazo zonke emhlabeni. Phakathi kwezintaba eziningi eziyibumbayo, iMount Everest ivelele, indawo ephakeme kakhulu emhlabeni ngamamitha ayi-8.850 ngaphezu kogu lolwandle, futhi ngenxa yezinselelo ezinkulu eziqukethe, isiphenduke uphawu lwabaqwala umhlaba wonke.

AmaHimalaya akhiwa cishe eminyakeni eyizigidi ezingama-55 edlule. Isuka kumakhilomitha angama-2.300 6.100 ukusuka enyakatho yePakistan uye e-Arunachal Pradesh (eNdiya), ishibilika iTibet kulo lonke uhambo. Ukuphakama kwayo okujwayelekile kungamamitha ayi-XNUMX.

Izinhlelo ezintathu zamanzi zase-Asia zazalelwa e-Himalaya: i-Indus, iGanges neYangtze. Le mifula isiza nokulawula isimo sezulu somhlaba, ikakhulukazi engxenyeni emaphakathi yezwekazi laseNdiya. Izintaba zaseHimalaya zihlala nezinguzunga zeqhwa eziningana njengeSiachen (enkulu kunazo zonke emhlabeni ngaphandle kwezifunda ezisezindaweni ezibandayo), iGangotri neYamunotri.

Ezinye izintaba zezintaba

Sizokuchaza ezinye zezintaba ezibaluleke kakhulu emhlabeni:

  • Ibanga Lezintaba iNeovolánica (Mexico). Luhlelo lwezintaba olwakhiwa izintaba-mlilo ezisebenzayo nezingasebenzi, kusuka eCabo Corrientes ogwini olusentshonalanga kuya eXalapa naseVeracruz ogwini olusempumalanga, ewela enkabeni yeMexico. Iziqongo eziphakeme kakhulu njenge-Orizaba (5.610 metres), Popocatépetl (5.465 metres), Istachivat (5.230 metres) neColima (4.100 metres) ziyabonakala. Izigodi nezindishi zalo eziningi zisetshenziselwa ezolimo, kanti inhlabathi yaso enensimbi iqukethe isiliva, umthofu, i-zinc, ithusi nethini.
  • I-Alps (iYurophu). Luhlelo lwezintaba olubanzi kakhulu eYurophu Ephakathi, lwakha intaba eyi-1.200 km ende esukela empumalanga yeFrance iye eSwitzerland, e-Italy, eJalimane nase-Austria. Iziqongo zayo eziningana zingaphezu kwamamitha angu-3.500 1.000 ukuphakama futhi ziqukethe izinguzunga zeqhwa ezingaphezu kwenkulungwane. Kuwo wonke umlando, izindlu zezindela eziningi ezingamaKristu sezizinze ezintabeni ze-Alps zifuna ukuthula.
  • Izintaba Ezinamadwala (eNyakatho Melika). Uhla lwezintaba olusuka kuKholamu LweBrithani enyakatho ye-Alberta naseCanada kuye eningizimu yeNew Mexico. Ubude obuphelele bungamakhilomitha angama-4.800 kanti iziqongo zingamamitha angama-4.000 ukuphakama. Iqukethe izinguzunga zeqhwa ezibalulekile njengeDinwoody neGooseneck, ezincipha ngokushesha nangokushesha ngenxa yokushisa komhlaba.
  • IPyrenees (iSpain neFrance). Luhlelo lwezintaba olusuka empumalanga luye entshonalanga phakathi kweSpain neFrance (kusuka eCape Cruz eMedithera kuye ezintabeni zaseCantabrian) futhi ludlula amakhilomitha angama-430. Iziqongo zayo eziphakeme kakhulu ziphakathi kwezintaba futhi zingaphezulu kwamamitha ayi-3.000 ukuphakama, njenge-Aneto (3.404 metres), Posets (3.375 metres), Monte Perdido (3.355 metres) nePico Maldito (3.350 metres). Njengamanje, inezinguzunga zeqhwa ezincane ezisendaweni engaphezu kwamamitha angu-2700 XNUMX ngaphezu kogu lolwandle.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngamabanga amakhulu kakhulu emhlabeni kanye nezici zawo.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.