Izintaba-mlilo

umlilo udaka mlilo

Igama uqobo intaba-mlilo, ivela eVulcano yaseRoma, kwabe kusho uVulcanus. Empeleni wayengumlingiswa ovela ezinganekwaneni zamaGreki ezazithathwa amaRoma. ILava ngaleso sikhathi yayihlobene nensimbi eshisayo ebomvu eyaqhuma emisebenzini eyenziwa nguHephaestus, uNkulunkulu womlilo nezinsimbi ezinganekwaneni zamaGrikhi. Lokho abantu basendulo ababengeke bakwazi ukukuqonda ukuthi kungani bekhona, lapho udaka luqhamuka khona, nokuthi yini ebengabashiya bengenakho ukuthula, ukuthi ayikhona emhlabeni wethu kuphela.

Kungani izintaba-mlilo zikhona?

izingqimba zangaphakathi zeplanethi yomhlaba ziyisisekelo se-magma

Izendlalelo ezahlukahlukene zeplanethi enguMhlaba

Izintaba-mlilo (ezifana nokuzamazama komhlaba) zihlobene eduze nokwakheka kwangaphakathi kweplanethi yethu. Umhlaba unomgogodla ophakathi nendawo osesimweni esiqinile ngokuya ngezilinganiso zokuzamazama komhlaba ngebanga elingamakhilomitha ayi-1220. Isendlalelo sangaphandle se-nucleus siyingxenye eqinile efika ku-3400km ku-radius. Ukusuka lapho kuvela ingubo, lapho udaka lutholakala khona. Izingxenye ezimbili zingahlukaniswa, isembatho esiphansi, esisuka ku-700km ukujula siye ku-2885km, nesaphezulu, esisuka ku-700km siye koqweqwe, ngobukhulu obumaphakathi obungu-50km.

Yize kungahle kungabonakali ngokubukeka, amagxolo we iplanethi yethu yakhiwe ngamapuleti amakhulu izingcingo ze-tectonic noma ze-lithospheric. Lokhu kusho ukuthi uqweqwe aluhambisani ngokuphelele. Amapuleti entanta engutsheni ye-basalt, lapho udaka luqhamuka khona, futhi le nto ibizwa ngokuthi, ukukhukhuleka kwezwekazi.

amapuleti e-tectonic ahlukile

Amapuleti ahlukene akhona, kanye nokuqondiswa kwengcindezi abayitholayo (Umthombo: Wikipedia)

Lolu hlobo lokukhukhuleka, luqukethe imifantu, futhi ibonakala kakhulu olwandle. Izintaba ezinkulu zezintaba-mlilo zinqamula phansi kolwandle, ziyizindawo eziphakathi nolwandle. Lezi zintaba ezinkulu nazo zakhiwa izintaba-mlilo ezinkulu ezimise okwentaba-mlilo. Ngalezi zimfucuza, izinkulungwane eziningi zamakhilomitha ubude, okokusebenza kuqhubeka ngokuqhamuka ezingubeni. Le nto, ishibilika ngamabhande amabili we-longitudinal, futhi iqhubeka ngokudala uqweqwe lomhlaba omusha. Kunezindawo lapho izikhala phakathi kwamapuleti e-tectonic zisezindaweni ezisenkabeni yezwe, hhayi olwandle, futhi kulapho esinemvelaphi yezintaba-mlilo. Ezindaweni eziwumngcingo koqweqwe lomhlaba, lapho kuhlangana khona amapuleti ama-tectonic.

Zivela kanjani izintaba-mlilo?

Uqweqwe, nalo, lubhujiswa njalo ezindaweni ezibizwa ngokuthi yi-subduction zones. Njengoba siphawulile, amapuleti ama-tectonic awa "nanyathiselwe" ngokoqobo. Lokhu kusho ukuthi kunezindawo lapho amanye amapuleti acwila ngaphansi kwamanye bese ehlangana nengubo. Lezi zindawo zezinyunyana zamapuleti zinezingcindezi ezinkulu, lokho kuzenza zibe ne- ukungazinzi okukhulu komhlaba, okuholele ekuzamazameni komhlaba nasezintabeni-mlilo.

Iphutha leSan Andreas, eCalifornia

ISan Andreas Fault, California, United States

Imikhawulo yemikhumbi yasemanzini yizindawo ezingazinzile kakhulu. Ngokuhlukile, ezinye zalezi zintaba-mlilo ezinodlame ezitholakala ezansi kolwandle, zingakhuphuka ngaphezu kolwandle. Bakha iziqhingi zomsebenzi omkhulu wentaba-mlilo, njengoba kunjalo nge-Iceland. Izindawo ezingazinzile kakhulu yizindawo lapho ipuleti elilodwa ligibela kwelinye, noma ngisho nalapho zigudlana eceleni, njengephutha elidumile laseSan Andrés e-United States. Lokhu kubonakala kakhulu ngeso lenyama, ngenxa yokuyekiswa okujulile okukuvezayo emhlabathini. Ngenxa yomsebenzi omkhulu wokuzamazama komhlaba, ososayensi babikezela ukuzamazama komhlaba okukhulu kuleyo ndawo, okuqanjwe ngegama Okukhulu.

Izingxenye zentaba-mlilo

Izingxenye zentaba-mlilo

Ukwahlukaniswa kwezingxenye ze-volcano

  • Igumbi le-Magmatic: Ihambisana nendawo engaphakathi koqweqwe lomhlaba, lapho kutholakala khona i- magma. Yilapho i-magma yakhela khona ngaphansi kwengcindezi ngaphambi kokukhuphukela phezulu. Imvamisa iba phakathi kwamakhilomitha ayi-1 no-10 ukujula.
  • Iziko lomlilo: Umsele ophuma lapho umagma ophuma ekuqhumeni uphuma khona, udaka. Ngemuva kokuqhuma, ixhunywe ngamatshe abandayo, okungukuthi, ngokuqina kwe-magma okuye kwaba khona.
  • Isigaxa sentaba-mlilo: Yindlela yokwakheka kwesigaxa esincishisiwe okuvela ngasentabeni. Kwakhiwa ukunqwabelana kwezinto ezikhiqizwayo nezikhishwe ukuqhuma.
  • Isigaxa sentaba-mlilo sesibili: Ukwakheka kukashimula omncane osizayo lapho i-magma iphuma khona.
  • I-Crater: Yimbobo lapho iphuma khona imbila ibheke ebusweni bomhlaba. Ngokuya nge-volcano, ubukhulu bayo nomumo kuzohluka kakhulu. Ingabunjwa njengofanele oguquliwe noma isigaxa, futhi ulinganise ukusuka kumamitha ambalwa kuya kumakhilomitha.
  • Amakhaya: Kungukuqongelelwa kodaka olubabazekayo olususelwa kumagma, lapho, lapho selupholile phezu komlomo oqhumayo uqobo, lungalixhuma.
  • Igiza: Zifana nezintaba-mlilo ezincane, kodwa zenziwe ngomphunga wamanzi abilayo. Kujwayelekile kakhulu ezindaweni ezinjenge-Iceland.
  • Ama-Skunks: Ama-fumaroles abandayo akhipha isikhutha.
  • Ama-Fumaroles: Ukushiswa kwamagesi avela odakeni emigodini.
  • Khipha: Ihambisana nephuzu elibuthakathaka lomhlabathi lapho i-magma ikwazile ukukhuphuka isuka egumbini ukuze ifinyelele ngaphezulu.
  • I-Solfataras: Ukukhishwa komphunga wamanzi kanye ne-hydrogen sulfide.
  • Izinhlobo Zentaba-mlilo

Izinga lokushisa, uhlobo lwezinto ezibonakalayo, i-viscosity nezinto ezincibilikisiwe ku-magma, konke kuhlangana kwakha uhlobo lokuqhuma, intaba-mlilo. Kanye nenani lemikhiqizo eguqukayo ehambisana nayo, singahlukanisa lezi zinhlobo ezilandelayo:

Intaba-mlilo yaseStrombolian

Ukuqhuma kwentaba-mlilo

Intaba-mlilo iParicutín, eMexico

Kuqala lapho kunokushintshana kwezinto eziqhumayo. Zakha isigaxa esinezendlalelo sodaka oluwuketshezi nezinto zokwakha eziqinile. ILava iyamanzi, ikhipha amagesi amaningi futhi anobudlova, ngokuqagela kwamabhomu, ama-lapilli nama-slags. Ngoba amagesi akhishwa kalula, awakhiqizi umlotha noma isifutho. Nini lava igcwala kakhulu emaphethelweni we umgodi, wehlela emithambekeni nasemihosheni, ngaphandle kokuhlala isikhathi eside, okwenzeka ezintabeni-mlilo zaseHawaii.

Intaba-mlilo yaseHawaii

Intaba-mlilo yaseHawaii

I-Kilauea, intaba-mlilo yaseHawaii edume kakhulu

NjengeStrombolian, udaka luwuketshezi impela. Ayinakho ukukhishwa kwegesi okuqhumayo. Kulokhu, lapho udaka luchichima emaphethelweni wentaba, zehla kalula emithambekeni yentaba-mlilo ukuhlala ezindaweni ezinkulu nokuhamba amabanga amade. Izintaba-mlilo zalolu hlobo zinemithambeka emnene, futhi lapho ezinye izinsalela zodaka zipheshulwa umoya zakha imicu yamakristalu.

I-athikili ehlobene:
Konke odinga ukukwazi mayelana nentaba-mlilo yaseKilauea

Intaba-mlilo iVulcanian

Intaba-mlilo yohlobo lweVulcan

Intaba-mlilo iVulcanian

Igama eliqhamuka eVulcanus volcano, elinama-cone amakhulu kakhulu, ibonakala ngokukhishwa okukhulu kwamagesi. Udaka olukhishiwe alunamanzi kakhulu futhi luyahlangana ngokushesha. Kulolu hlobo lokuqhuma, ukuqhuma kunamandla kakhulu futhi kuphazamisa udaka. Ikhiqiza umlotha omningi, okuthi uma uphonswa emoyeni uhambisane nezinye izinto ezihlukanisayo. Imagma ekhishelwa ngaphandle, udaka, iyaqina ngokushesha, kodwa amagesi akhishwayo ayahlephuka futhi aqhekeze ingaphezulu lawo. Lokho kwenza kube lukhuni kakhulu futhi kungalingani.

Intaba-mlilo iPeleano

ukulwa nentaba-mlilo mont pelé

IMont Pelée, isiqhingi iMartinique, eFrance

Kulolu hlobo lwentaba-mlilo, udaka oluvela ekuqhumeni kwalo lubukeka ngokukhethekile futhi luyahlangana ngokushesha. Kufika ekuvaleni ngokuphelele i-crater, kwakheke uhlobo lwe-python noma inaliti. Lokhu kubangela ingcindezi ephezulu yamagesi ukungakwazi ukubaleka, okwenza i ukuqhuma okukhulu ukuphakamisa i-python noma ukudwengula phezulu kwesiqongo sentaba.

Isibonelo sentabamlilo yasePeleano sitholakala ekuqhumeni okukhulu okwenzeka ngomhlaka UMeyi 8, 1902 eNtabeni iPelée. Amandla angavamile amagesi aqoqwe emazingeni okushisa aphakeme, ahlanganiswe nomlotha, abhidliza izindonga zentaba-mlilo lapho kudedelwa lokho. Kuthinte idolobha laseSt. Pierre, esiqhingini saseFrance iMartinique, ngenani elilinganiselayo le Izisulu ezingama-29.933 ngenxa yefu lomlilo elaqhamuka.

I-Phreatomagmatic Volcano

ISytsey Island Iceland

Isiqhingi saseSytsey, e-Iceland. Okuvela ekuqhumeni kwesibindi. Isithombe ngu-Erling Ólafsson

Izintaba-mlilo ze-Phreatomagmatic ziyatholakala emanzini angajulile, abizwa ngamanzi angajulile yi-International Hydrographic Organisation. Bafaka ichibi ngaphakathi kwentaba yabo futhi kwesinye isikhathi bakha ama-atoll, iziqhingi zasolwandle zasolwandle. Emandleni entaba-mlilo uqobo kunezelwa ukunwetshwa komphunga wamanzi owawusushise ngokushesha, okwenza ukuqhuma kobudlova ngokweqile. Imvamisa azivezi ukukhishwa kwe-lava noma ukuqhuma kwamadwala.

Intaba-mlilo iPliniano

Intaba-mlilo iTeide Canary Islands

ITeide, Iziqhingi zaseCanary, eSpain

Kulolu hlobo lwentaba-mlilo, olwehlukile ekuqhumeni okuvamile kwentaba-mlilo, ingcindezi yamagesi inamandla kakhulu, ukukhiqiza ukuqhuma kobudlova. Iphinde yakhe amafu omlilo okuthi, uma esepholile, akhiqize imvula yomlotha. Bangangcwaba amadolobha.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, kubuye kubonakale ngokushintshana kokuqhuma kwe-pyroclastic nokuqhuma kokugeleza kwelava. Lokhu kubangela ukugqagqana kwezendlalelo, okuveza ukuthi lezi zintaba-mlilo zinobukhulu obukhulu kakhulu. Isibonelo esihle salokhu, sinaso kuTeide.

Manje njengoba sesibonile ukuthi intabamlilo iyini, kufanele kuqashelwe ukuthi azikho kuphela emhlabeni wethu. Lesi simo singesinye salezo iplanethi yethu yoMhlaba enazo ngokufana namanye amaplanethi asozungezweni nasesibhakabhakeni sonke. Kuzo zonke lezo magma eziqukethwe ngaphakathi kwalolo suku olulodwa ngaphansi kwengcindezi ziyaqhuma. Nomaphi lapho sibheka khona, singabona ukufana, neplanethi yethu, ngisho nathi uqobo. Futhi ngukuthi "sonke sinentaba-mlilo ngaphakathi: sigcina izinto eziningi kangangokuba, ngolunye usuku, sizikhipha zonke ngasikhathi sinye", uBenjamin Griss.

Uyazi ukuthi yini i- izintaba-mlilo ezisebenzayo kwenzenjani?


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

*

*

  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.