Izinkanyezi zeNeutron

ukukhula kwezinkanyezi

Endaweni yonke sithola ezintweni eziningi ukuthi kusenzima ngathi ukuthi siziqonde zombili izici zazo kanye nemvelaphi yazo. Enye yazo yi- inkanyezi ye-neutron. Kuyinto yasezulwini enesisindo samathani ayizigidi eziyikhulu. Inokuqina okungaqondakali kwama-neutron nombala ongajwayelekile. Njengoba inalesi siminyaminya, inamandla amakhulu adonsela phansi nxazonke. Lezi zinkanyezi zimangalisa ngokuphelele futhi kufanelekile ukuzitadisha.

Ngakho-ke, sizonikezela le ndatshana ukukutshela zonke izici, ukusebenza nemvelaphi yezinkanyezi ze-neutron.

Yini izinkanyezi ze-neutron

izinkanyezi ze-neutron

Noma iyiphi inkanyezi enkulu ngokwanele iyakwazi ukuba yinkanyezi ye-neutron. Lokhu kwenza kube njalo inqubo yokuguqulwa ibe yinkanyezi ye-neutron ayivamile. Yizinto ezishubile ezaziwayo endaweni yonke. Lapho inkanyezi enkulu iqeda wonke uphethiloli wayo wenuzi, umongo wayo uqala ukungazinzile ngokwengeziwe. Yilapho amandla adonsela phansi kangaka ecekela phansi wonke ama-athomu asizungezile ngamandla.

Njengoba engasekho uphethiloli wokukhiqiza i-fusion yenuzi, awunawo amandla okuphikisana namandla adonsela phansi. Nakhu ukuthi i-nucleus iya ngokuya ijiye ize ifike ezingeni lokuthi ama-electron nama-proton angene ku-neutron. Ungase ucabange ukuthi, kulezi zimo, amandla adonsela phansi angaqhubeka nokwenza isikhangiso. Uma kunanoma yiluphi uhlobo lwamandla alubambayo, into iba minyene ngokwengeziwe futhi amandla adonsela phansi angapheli. Kodwa-ke, ingcindezi yokwehla ngenxa yobuningi bezinhlayiya futhi ivumela le nkanyezi eminyene ye-neutron ukuthi yakhe ngaphandle kokuziwela yodwa.

Esikhundleni sokuwa, izinkanyezi ze-neutron zishisa kakhulu ukuze ama-proton nama-electron akwazi ukuhlangana ndawonye futhi akhe ama-neutron. Ngokuba nengqikithi yenkanyezi a ithempelesha ka-10 ephakanyiswe yaya kuma-9 degrees uKelvin ikhiqiza ukuhlanganiswa kwe-photode yezinto ezikuqambayo. Ungasho ukuthi zonke lezi zinxushunxushu zenuzi ezenzeka ekwakhekeni kwezinkanyezi ze-neutron ziyinkimbinkimbi futhi zinodlame kunenkanyezi ejwayelekile. Futhi ukuthi inamandla amaningi akhiqizwa ngendlela yokujikeleza ize ifinyelele kubukhulu obukhulu.

Izinkanyezi eziyinhloko ze-neutron

ukwakheka kwenkanyezi ye-neutron

Uma umnyombo wenkanyezi ye-neutron ubunesisindo esikhulu kakhulu, kungenzeka ukuthi uwe futhi wenze umgodi omnyama. Eqinisweni, ososayensi abaningi bacabanga ukuthi imvelaphi yomgodi omnyama ivela lapha. Lapho ingcindezi eyanele ifinyelelwa ukumisa ukusikwa, inkanyezi ilahlekelwa izingqimba zayo ezingaphezulu bese iya ku-supernova enobudlova. Inqubo iyaqhubeka kepha inkanyezi iyaphola kancane. Lokhu kungenxa ye-photodecay. Lapho izigaba zokugcina zifinyelelwa, cishe yonke into eyayikhona enkanyezini isivele iguqulwe yaba ama-neutron.

Uma ingqikithi yenkanyezi inesisindo esikhulu kakhulu, umgodi omnyama ungakha. Endabeni yezinkanyezi, le nqubo iyema ngokushesha ngoba ingcindezi ewohlokile igcina izinhlayiya zisondelene kakhulu kodwa zingalahlekelwa yimvelo yazo. Ngale ndlela, izinkanyezi ze-neutron yizo ezimaka umkhawulo wento ecijile ekhona endaweni yonke.

Akuzona nje kuphela izinto ezishube kakhulu, kodwa futhi zingesinye sezici ezikhanya kakhulu endaweni yonke. Kungashiwo ukuthi inokukhanya okukhethekile okufana nalokho kwama-pulsars. Lapho izinkanyezi ze-neutron zijikeleza ngesivinini esikhulu kakhulu, zikhipha imisebe enamandla amakhulu. Ngokubuka, Le misebe ihunyushwa njengokungathi yindlu yesibani ethekwini. Konke lokhu kukhishwa kwamandla kwenziwa ngezikhathi ezithile futhi kufane nalokho kwe-pulsars. Lezi zinkanyezi zingazungeza izikhathi eziyikhulu ngomzuzwana. Lokhu zikwenza ngejubane elikhulu kangangokuthi inkabamba yenkanyezi efanayo ikhubazeka futhi yeluleke ngesikhathi se-spin. Ukube bekungekhona ngenxa yamandla amakhulu adonsela phansi, izinkanyezi bezingabhidlika ngenxa yamandla we-centrifugal avela ku-spin.

Yini ezungezile

Sesiyazi ukuthi ziyini izinkanyezi ze-neutron nokuthi zisebenza kanjani. Manje kufanele sazi ukuthi yini ebazungezile. Kuzungezile amandla adonsela phansi adalwe yi-anomaly makhulu kangangokuba isikhathi sidlula ngejubane elihlukile. Lesi sivinini sesikhathi sibukeka sihlukile kulabo abangaphakathi kwenkambu yaso. Ingabe mayelana ukubonakaliswa kobunjalo besikhathi sesikhala esisizungezile.

Ngenxa yaleli nani lamandla adonsela phansi, izinto eziningi zasezulwini ezizungezile ziyakhanga futhi zibe yingxenye yenkanyezi.

Curiosities

amandla adonsela phansi nezinto eziminyene

Ake sibone ezinye izifiso ezikhona ngalolu hlobo lwezinkanyezi ezinkulu:

  • Inkanyezi ye-neutron yakhiwa ngu ukuqedwa kukaphethiloli wenkanyezi enkulu.
  • Isiqephu senkanyezi ye-neutron esilingana ne-cube kashukela siqukethe inani elifanayo lobukhulu njengabantu bonke besikhathi esisodwa.
  • Uma ilanga lethu lingaqhephuka lilingane nezinkanyezi ze-neutron, belizothatha ivolumu efanayo ne-Everest.
  • Inani elikhulu lamandla adonsela phansi kule ndawo libangela ukuncipha kwesikhashana okwenza ubuso be inkanyezi ye-neutron idlula kancane ngama-30% kunasemhlabeni.
  • Uma umuntu ewela phezu kwalezi zinhlobo zezinkanyezi, izokhiqiza ukuqhuma kwamandla okungu-200 megaton.
  • Izinkanyezi zeNeutron ezijikeleza ngesivinini esikhulu zikhipha imisebe futhi ngenxa yalokho zibizwa ngokuthi ama-pulsars.
  • Uma ilanga lethu likomunye uphethiloli ngokuphelele noma amandla okuqhuma e-fusion yenuzi, ukudonsa kwamandla adonsela phansi kungaba yinto yokuthi leyo ndaba ingagcina isibhidlikile ngaphansi kwamandla adonsela phansi ayo.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngezinkanyezi ze-neutron, izici zazo nokuthi zisebenza kanjani.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.