Izinhlobo zezinkanyezi

izinhlobo zezinkanyezi nezici

Kuwo wonke umkhathi singathola izigidigidi zezinkanyezi neziningi izinhlobo zezinkanyezi ezinezici ezihlukile. Izinkanyezi ziye zabonwa kusukela kuwo wonke umlando wesintu, ngisho nangaphambi kwazo Homo sapiens. Kube ngumthombo wolwazi ofanele ukwazi ukuthi indawo yonke injani, kusebenze njengekhuthazo kubaculi bazo zonke izinhlobo futhi kusetshenziswe njengomzila wamatilosi nabahambi.

Ngakho-ke, sizonikezela le ndatshana ukukutshela konke odinga ukukwazi ngezinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zezinkanyezi ezikhona nezimpawu zazo eziyinhloko.

Yini izinkanyezi

izinkanyezi ezahlukahlukene

Okokuqala kunakho konke ukwazi ukuthi ziyini izinkanyezi nokuthi zihlukaniswa kanjani. Ku-astronomy, izinkanyezi zichazwa njengama-spheroid e-plasma akhipha ukukhanya futhi agcine isakhiwo sibonga isenzo samandla adonsela phansi. Inkanyezi esiseduze kakhulu esinayo ilanga. Yiyona kuphela inkanyezi esimisweni sonozungezilanga nesinikeza ukukhanya nokushisa, okwenza kube nokwenzeka emhlabeni wethu. Siyazi ukuthi iplanethi yoMhlaba isendaweni ehlala abantu esimisweni sonozungezilanga, esikude kakhulu naso.

Kodwa-ke, kunezinhlobo eziningi zezinkanyezi futhi zingahlukaniswa ngokwezici ezilandelayo:

  • Izinga lokushisa nokukhanya okunikezwe inkanyezi
  • Impilo ende abanayo
  • Amandla adonsela phansi aba namandla

Izinhlobo zezinkanyezi ngokuya ngamazinga okushisa nokukhanya kwazo

izinhlobo zezinkanyezi

Sizohlaziya ukuthi yiziphi izinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zezinkanyezi ezikhona ngokuya ngethempelesha ezinayo nokukhanya ezikunikezayo. Lesi sigaba saziwa ngokuthi ukuhlukaniswa okubukwayo kweHarvard futhi sithola igama laso ngokuthi selakhiwe eHarvard University ngasekupheleni kwekhulu le-XNUMX. Lesi sigaba yisona esivame ukusetshenziswa kakhulu yizazi zezinkanyezi. Inesibopho sokuhlukanisa zonke izinkanyezi ngokuya ngamazinga okushisa kwazo kanye nokukhanya ezikunikezayo. Izinhlobo eziyisikhombisa eziyinhloko zezinkanyezi zifakiwe O, B, A, F, G, K no-M, ezinemibala esukela kokuluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka kuya kobomvu.

Kukhona ezinye izinhlobo zokuhlukaniswa kwezinkanyezi njengokuhlukaniswa kwe-Yerkes spectral. Lokhu kuhlukaniswa kwakungemva kukaHarvard futhi kunemodeli ethile lapho kuhlukaniswa izinkanyezi. Lokhu kuhlukaniswa kubheka ukushisa kwezinkanyezi nobukhulu benkanyezi ngayinye. Lapha sithola izinhlobo eziyisishiyagalolunye zezinkanyezi okulandelayo:

  • 0 - Ukuzikhukhumeza
  • Ia - Supergiant ekhanyayo kakhulu
  • Ib - Supergiant wokukhanya okuphansi
  • II - Elikhanyayo Giant
  • III - Isigebenga
  • IV - Ukuthobela
  • Izinkanyezi ezilandelanayo eziyinhloko ze-V - Dwarf
  • VI - uSubenana
  • I-VII - White Dwarf

Izinhlobo zezinkanyezi ngokusho kokukhanya nokushisa

imithala

Enye indlela yokuhlukanisa izinkanyezi ngokusho kokushisa nokukhanya kwazo. Ake sibone ukuthi yiziphi izinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zezinkanyezi ngokusho kwalezi zici:

  • Izinkanyezi ezi-Hypergiant: yilawo anesisindo esifinyelela izikhathi eziyikhulu isisindo selanga lethu. Ezinye zazo zazisondela kumkhawulo wemfundiso, okuyinani lika-100 M. 120 M ubukhulu obulingana nelanga lethu. Leli zinga lokukala lisetshenziselwa ukuvumela ukuqhathanisa okungcono kakhulu phakathi kosayizi nobukhulu bezinkanyezi.
  • Izinkanyezi ezinhle kakhulu: Lezi zinesisindo esiphakathi kuka-10 no-50M nobukhulu obudlula izikhathi eziyi-1000 kunelanga lethu. Yize ilanga lethu libukeka likhulu, livela eqenjini lezinkanyezi ezincane.
  • Izinkanyezi ezinkulu: imvamisa iba ne-radius phakathi kwezikhathi eziyi-10 nezingu-100 i-radius yelanga.
  • Izinkanyezi ezingaphansi: lolu hlobo lwezinkanyezi yilolo olwakhiwe ngenxa yokuhlangana kwayo yonke i-hydrogen esakhiweni sayo. Zivame ukukhanya kakhulu kunezinkanyezi ezilandelanayo eziyinhloko ezilandelanayo. Ukukhazimula kwawo kwakuphakathi kwezinkanyezi ezincane nezinkanyezi ezinkulu.
  • Izinkanyezi zemifino: ziyingxenye yokulandelana okuyinhloko. Lokhu kulandelana yikhona okuhlanganisa izinkanyezi eziningi ezitholakala endaweni yonke. Ilanga elisesimweni sonozungezilanga wethu liyinkanyezi emfushane ephuzi.
  • Izinkanyezi ezingaphansi komhlaba: ukukhanya kwaso kuphakathi kobukhulu obungu-1.5 no-2 ngaphansi kokulandelana okuyinhloko kodwa ngohlobo olufanayo lwe-spectral.
  • Izinkanyezi ezimhlophe ezimhlophe: Lezi zinkanyezi yizinsalela zezinye eziphelelwe uphethiloli wenuzi. Lolu hlobo lwezinkanyezi luningi kakhulu endaweni yonke, kanye nemifino ebomvu. Kulinganiselwa ukuthi izinkanyezi ezaziwayo ezingama-97% zizodlula kulesi sigaba. Ngasekuqaleni zonke izinkanyezi ziyaphelelwa uphethiloli futhi zigcina sezizinkanyezi ezimhlophe zemifino.

Umjikelezo wokuphila

Okunye ukuhlukaniswa kwezinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zezinkanyezi kuncike kumjikelezo wazo wokuphila. Umjikelezo wokuphila wezinkanyezi usukela ekuzalweni kwawo kusuka efwini elikhulu lamangqamuzana kuya ekufeni kwenkanyezi. Lapho ifa ingaba nezinhlobo ezahlukene nezinsalela zezinkanyezi. Lapho izalwa ibizwa ngokuthi i-protostar. Ake sibone ukuthi yiziphi izigaba ezahlukahlukene zempilo yenkanyezi:

  1. I-PSP: Ukulandelwa Okuyinhloko
  2. SP: Ukulandelana okuyinhloko
  3. I-SubG: Ukuzithoba
  4. GR: Red Giant
  5. AR: Ukuminyana okubomvu
  6. RH: igatsha eliqondile
  7. RAG: IGiant Asymptotic Yegatsha
  8. I-SGAz: I-supergiant eluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka
  9. I-SGAm: I-supergiant ephuzi
  10. I-SGR: I-Red Supergiant
  11. WR: Inkanyezi Wolf-Rayet
  12. I-VLA: Ukuhluka okukhanyayo okuluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka

Uma inkanyezi isiphelile uphethiloli ingafa ngezindlela ezahlukahlukene. Ingaphenduka ibe yinto encane ensundu, i-supernova, i-hypernova, i-nebula yeplanethi, noma i-gamma ray bursts. Izinsalela zezinkanyezi ezingaholela ekufeni kwenkanyezi yizinkanyezi ezimhlophe, umgodi omnyama nezinkanyezi ze-neutron.

Akunakwenzeka ukubala zonke izinkanyezi endaweni yonke ebonakalayo ngamunye ngamunye. Esikhundleni salokho, kwenziwa umzamo wokubala yonke imithala ukwenza izilinganiso ezithile kanye nezilinganiso zamasaka elanga aqukethwe kuwo. Ososayensi bacabanga ukuthi kuphela ngendlela yobisi kunezinkanyezi eziphakathi kwezigidi eziyi-150.000 nezingama-400.000. Ngemuva kwezifundo ezithile, izazi zezinkanyezi zilinganisela ukuthi inani eliphelele lezinkanyezi ezitholakala endaweni yonke eyaziwayo yizinkanyezi ezingaba yizigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezingama-70.000.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi mayelana nezinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zezinkanyezi ezikhona nezici zazo.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.