Izilwane zasePermian

Izilwane zasePermian

Esikhathini se-Paleozoic kunezikhathi eziyisithupha lapho isikhathi se-geological sihlukaniswa khona. Ngesikhathi se- Isikhathi sePermian, etholakala phakathi kwe- i-carboniferous futhi i I-Triassic impilo yavela ngezinguquko ezinkulu. I- Izilwane zasePermian yayino-protagonist wayo umdwebo wokuqala wezilwane ezincelisayo kanye nokwehluka nokwandiswa kwezinye izidalwa eziphilayo ezazivele zikhona. Isikhathi sePermian sathatha cishe iminyaka eyizigidi ezingama-48 futhi sathathwa njengesikhathi sokushintshwa kweplanethi zombili ezingeni lokuma nokwesimo sezulu.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela mayelana nezici nokuvela kwezilwane zasePermian.

Isikhathi sePermian

Kunochwepheshe abaningi abaphenya kaningi ngalesi sikhathi ngoba kungatholakala inani elikhulu lolwazi olubalulekile. Ikakhulukazi ekugcineni kwePermian inentshisekelo kwezesayensi selokhu yethulwa  okuyisigameko esiyinhlekelele nokucekela phansi kokuqothulwa kwabantu abaningi emhlabeni wonke. Le nqubo yokuqothulwa kwabantu abaningi ibaluleke kakhulu kunokuqothulwa kwama-dinosaurs ku hloniphabangu.

Isikhathi sokuqothulwa saziwa ngokuthi "Ukufa Okukhulu" futhi kuso Ngaphezu kwama-90% azo zonke izinhlobo zezinto eziphilayo sezinyamalele. Kwasinda izinhlobo ezimbalwa kuphela ezanikeza ezinye izilwane ezidume kakhulu emlandweni womhlaba njengama-dinosaurs. Isikhathi esiphelele sePermian silinganiselwa eminyakeni eyizigidi ezingama-48, kuqala eminyakeni eyizigidi ezingama-299 edlule futhi kwaphela iminyaka eyizigidi ezingama-251 edlule.

Ngalesi sikhathi sesimo sezulu sasihluka kakhulu. Kokubili ekuqaleni nasekupheleni kwalesi sikhathi, izinguzunga zeqhwa zazibonwa futhi isimo sezulu esigabeni saso esiphakathi sasifudumele futhi sinomswakama.

Ukufa Okukhulu kuzilwane zasePermian

Ngalesi sikhathi ezinye izinhlobo zezilwane zahlangabezana nokuhlukahluka okukhulu. Kulokhu, sithola ukuziphendukela kwemvelo okukhulu ezihuquzelayo ezazithathwa njengezilwane ezincelisayo. Futhi kungukuthi kwamanye amarekhodi ezinsalela atholakala okhokho bezilwane ezincelisayo zamanje. Okusho ukuthi, izilwane ezincelisayo zamanje zivela ezihuquzelayo.

Ngokuphathelene nokufa Okukhulu kube ngesinye sezenzakalo ezibaluleke kakhulu zokuqothulwa kwesisindo emhlabeni wonke. Kwenzeke phakathi nalesi sikhathi kakade ekupheleni kwayo cishe ekuqaleni kwesikhathi seTriassic. Kuyinqubo yokuqothula okucekela phansi kunayo yonke iplanethi eyake yadlula kuyo. Futhi ngukuthi ama-90% ezinhlobo zezinto eziphilayo ezagcwala iplanethi zaphela. Akwaziwa ngokuphelele ukuthi zaziyini izimbangela zokuqothulwa kwabantu abaningi kangaka, kepha kunemibono ethile ezama ukuveza okwenzekile.

Phakathi kwemibono ethinteke kakhulu eye-a umsebenzi omkhulu wentaba-mlilo owadala ukuxoshwa kwesibalo esikhulu sesikhutha emkhathini. Njengoba sazi, le carbon dioxide ingugesi obamba ukushisa onamandla okugcina ukushisa. Inani elikhulu lesikhutha elikhishelwe emkhathini labanga ukwanda kwesilinganiso sokushisa kwemvelo. Yile ndlela okwadala ngayo ukungazinzi komkhathi ezingeni lomhlaba futhi izidalwa eziningi zazingakwazi ukuzivumelanisa nezimo zemvelo.

Esinye isiphakamiso yimbangela yokukhishwa kwama-hydrocarbon kusuka phansi olwandle kanye nomthelela we-meteorite. Noma ngabe iyini imbangela yako, kungumcimbi oyinhlekelele kakhulu owathinta kakhulu zonke izimo zemvelo ezazikhona emhlabeni ngaleso sikhathi.

Izilwane zasePermian

ukufa okukhulu ezilwaneni zasempumalanga

Ngalesi sikhathi, ezinye izinhlobo zezilwane ezavela ezikhathini ezedlule zagcinwa. Kodwa-ke, iqembu elibalulekile lezilwane ezintsha njenge kwakuyizilwane ezihuquzelayo ezincelisayo. Lezi zilwane zibhekwa njengokhokho bezilwane ezincelisayo zamanje. Impilo ehluke kakhulu yatholakala ezilwandle.

Ezingenamgogodla

Phakathi kwama-invertebrate avela ezilwaneni zasePermian, amanye amaqembu asolwandle afana ne-echinoderms nama-mollusk kuyakhulunywa ngawo. Ngenxa yezifundo ezahlukahlukene zesayensi, kuye kwenzeka ukuthola amarekhodi ezinsalela zamabhayisikili nama-gastropods, kanye namanye ama-brachiopods. Ngaphakathi kwaleli qembu nemvelo yasolwandle, amalungu onqenqema lwe-poriferous lapho kutholakala khona izipanji. Lezi zilwane yizo ezaqhamuka ezindaweni eziningi ezivalekile.

Ngaphandle kokuthi iningi lalezi zilwane lanyamalala, irekhodi lezinsalela litholakele lapho izinhlobo ezingaphezu kwezinkulungwane ezine ziye zahlukaniswa. Isici saso esasihlukile ukuthi lezi zilwane zazivikelwe isembozo sezinto ezinamakhasi. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, ama-arthropods, ikakhulukazi izinambuzane, abe nokukhula okuhle njengezikhathi ezedlule. Ngalesi sikhathi kufanele kuqashelwe ukuthi ubukhulu bezinambuzane babubaluleke kakhulu kunanamuhla. Kuleli qembu lezilwane, kwavela ama-oda amasha amaningi, njengeDiptera neColeoptera.

Ama-Vertebrates

Ukuqhubekela phambili sitadisha izilwane ezinomgogodla, siyabona ukuthi nazo zanda kakhulu futhi zahlukahluka, kokubili ezindaweni eziphila emhlabeni nasemanzini. Izinhlanzi kwakuyizilwane ezimelele kakhulu kulesi sikhathi. Lapha sithola ama-chondrichthyans njengoshaka nezinhlanzi ezinamathambo. Omunye woshaka owaphela ngesikhathi seCretaceous wayesevele ephila ngalesi sikhathi. Oshaka ngaleso sikhathi babefana kakhulu noshaka banamuhla, yize babengebakhulu. Babengafika kuphela kumamitha ama-2 ubude.

Sibona futhi ne-Orthacanthus. Luhlobo lwezinhlanzi ezingasekho namuhla. Okweqembu loshaka futhi ukubukeka kwalo bekuhluke kakhulu. Umzimba ubufana nowe-eel futhi unezinhlobo ezahlukene zamazinyo. Siphinde sibe nezilwane eziphila ezweni nasemanzini. Lezi zilwane zathuthuka. Babeyiqembu elihluke ngokuphelele futhi bebengasuka kumasentimitha ambalwa kuye kumamitha ayi-10.

Ekugcineni, siyakubona lokho ezihuquzelayo kwakuyizilwane ezazethula ukwehluka okukhulu. Phakathi kwalezi ezihuquzelayo sithola ama-therapsids, okwakuyiqembu lezilwane ezincelisayo ezithathwa njengokhokho bezilwane ezincelisayo zanamuhla. Phakathi kwezici zabo ezihlukile, sithole ukuthi ziveza izinhlobo eziningana zamazinyo futhi ngalinye laguqulelwa emisebenzini ehlukene. Ngaphezu kwalokho, babenemilenze noma imilenze emi-4 futhi ukudla kwabo kwakwehlukahluka. Kwakunezinhlobo zombili ezidlayo nezidla kakhulu.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngezilwane zasePermian


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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.