Izikhukhula eChina

simo somonakalo

Ngenxa yokuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu, izehlakalo zesimo sezulu ezimbi njengezikhukhula zenzeka ngokuvama nokushuba okukhulu. I izikhukhula eChina zanda kakhulu. Kakade sebedale umonakalo omningi wezomnotho futhi babangele ukufa kwabantu abaningi eminyakeni yamuva. Ukuze enze lokhu, amaShayina asungule amasu athile ukuze akwazi ukunqanda lezi zikhukhula ezibulalayo.

Ngakho-ke, sizonikezela lesi sihloko ukuze sikutshele konke okudingeka ukwazi mayelana nezikhukhula zaseShayina, umonakalo eziwudalayo nokuthi yiziphi izinyathelo namasu okwenziwa nguhulumeni.

Izikhukhula eChina

izikhukhula eChina

Intuthuko emangalisayo yaseShayina yokukhula kwamadolobha emashumini eminyaka amuva nje, kuhlanganiswe nezici zayo eziyingqayizivele zokuma kwezwe nesimo sezulu, kudale ingxube ebulalayo yezikhukhula zasemadolobheni ezibangela izigidi zezisulu, amakhulu ezinkulungwane zokufa kanye nokulahlekelwa okukhulu kwezomnotho. Ziningi izinyathelo ezithathiwe ukubhekana nezikhukhula. Ziyini futhi ithini imiphumela yazo? kunothi elilandelayo.

Kusukela ngo-1949, izikhukhula ezinkulu ezingaphezu kuka-50 ngenxa yeziphepho, izivunguvungu noma amagagasi ahlasele izindawo ezahlukene zensimu yaseShayina.. Lezi zehlakalo ziholele ekutheni uhulumeni enze izinhlelo zokuvimbela ukuze kuncishiswe ukulahleka kwabantu nezinto ezibonakalayo, ukubuyisana kule nqubo ubudlelwano phakathi kwezikhukhula kanye nokuthuthukiswa kwenhlalakahle yezomnotho.

Umlando uyaphana uma kuziwa ezinhlekeleleni ezihlobene nezikhukhula. Isibonelo, ngo-1931, uWuhan wagcwala izikhukhula izinsuku ezingaphezu kweziyi-100 futhi isikhukhula sashiya abantu abangaphezu kuka-780 000 bengenamakhaya futhi sabulala abangu-32 600. Esinye isikhukhula esiyingozi senzeka endaweni yomfula iHan ngo-1983, sabulala abantu abangaphezu kuka-870 futhi sacwilisa idolobha lase-Ankang. 8 amamitha ngaphansi kwezinga lolwandle.

Kusukela ngo-2000, iShayina ibe nezikhukhula ezinkulu okungenani kanye eminyakeni emibili. Ezinye zezigameko ezimbi kakhulu zihlanganisa izikhukhula zangoJulayi 2003, lapho isiphepho esingakaze sibonwe sihlasela iNanjing, esadala imvula yansuku zonke engaphezu kuka-309 mm - cishe kabili imvula yonyaka enkabeni yeChile - ekufeni kwamakhulu, kanye nezisulu ezingaphezu kwesigidi esisodwa.

NgoJulayi 2007, I-Chongqing neJinan yahlaselwa esinye seziphepho ezinkulu eminyakeni eyi-100, kwabulala abantu abangu-103, kwathi ngo-2010, iSichuan yashiya abantu abangaphezu kuka-800.000 150 bengenamakhaya futhi yabulala abantu abangu-80. Imininingwane ikhombisa ukuthi cishe u-XNUMX% wezikhukhula azenzeki ezindaweni zasemakhaya, kodwa emadolobheni.

Ngalesi sikhathi, ochwepheshe bezindawo zasemadolobheni bazi kahle ukuthi amadolobha esimanje awanamandla ngokwanele ukumelana nezimvula ezinkulu futhi bathi inhlekelele “elinganiselwe” ingase ibambezele ukuthuthukiswa kwedolobha iminyaka engamashumi amabili.

Amasu okugwema izikhukhula eChina

umonakalo wezikhukhula

Izikhukhula zasemadolobheni ngokuvamile zibangela umonakalo omkhulu futhi zithinta abantu abaningi, futhi umonakalo kanye nezinhlekelele zilingana nezinga lokukhula kwedolobha, ngakho izingozi ziyanda unyaka nonyaka njengoba ukukhula kwedolobha kuqhubeka, okukhathaza nakakhulu uma kungabekezelelwa. Ukubeka engozini konke ukuzinza kwezenhlalo nezomnotho kwezifunda ezihlala amashumi noma amakhulu ezigidi zabantu.

Ukuze kuqedwe le ndaba edabukisayo, ngo-2003 uMnyango Wezamanzi WaseShayina wenza isiphakamiso kuhulumeni omkhulu ukuthi athathe izinyathelo ngalolu daba, okwaholela ekushintsheni kwenqubomgomo yokulawula izikhukhula engasebenzi kahle kuya kunqubomgomo yokunqanda izikhukhula.

Lokhu sekuholele ekulawuleni imisebenzi ekhiqizayo endaweni yezikhukhula, ukuthuthukiswa kwezinhlelo zokuvimbela kanye nochungechunge lwezinyathelo zokuqinisekisa ukuphepha koquqaba. Nokho, kulinganiselwa ukuthi amadolobha angama-355 kwangu-642 lapho ukulawula izikhukhula kuwumsebenzi omkhulu -55% - asebenzisa izindinganiso zokulawula izikhukhula eziphansi kunalezo ezisungulwe uhulumeni omkhulu.

Eminyakeni yakamuva, i-China yethule umqondo "wokulawulwa kobungozi" futhi yaphakamisa izinqubomgomo ezintsha. Ngakho-ke, ukuze usuke ekuthembeleni ezinyathelweni zesakhiwo zokunciphisa umonakalo wezikhukhula uye ekulinganiseni izinyathelo zesakhiwo nezingezona ezesakhiwo, uMnyango Wezinsiza Zamanzi usungule Isu Likazwelonke Lokulawulwa Kwezikhukhula ngo-2005.

Lokho okubizwa ngokuthi "Isu Lokulawula Izikhukhula LaseChina" kungachazwa kalula ngokuthi: uhulumeni waseShayina unquma ukulawula izikhukhula ngokusekelwe engozini, egcizelela izinyathelo ezingezona zesakhiwo, ikakhulukazi ezokuphatha, ezomnotho, ezobuchwepheshe kanye nezemfundo (njengezinhlelo zokuthatha izinqumo ezimaphakathi , ukuvimbela izinhlelo, izinhlelo zokunciphisa izinhlekelele kanye nomshwalense wokulawula izikhukhula) kanye nokugqugquzela ukuqaliswa kwezinhlelo zokuqalisa izinyathelo zesakhiwo, njenge ukuqiniswa kwamadamu, ukulawulwa kwezinga lemifula nokwakhiwa kwamadamu, ukuzuza izinzuzo ezigcwele nezesikhathi eside.

Amaphuzu abalulekile

umonakalo wezikhukhula e-china

Imisebenzi emithathu yamasu 'yokuphatha' yezikhukhula yilena:

  • Yakha amaphrojekthi okonga amanzi ukuze kwehliswe izinhlekelele ngendlela efanele. Iphrojekthi enkulukazi ye-Three Gorges Dam iyagqama kule phrojekthi.
  • Lawula imisebenzi yabantu ukuze unciphise umonakalo wezikhukhula emkhakheni wokukhiqiza.
  • Ukusetshenziswa kangcono kwamanzi ezikhukhula nokusetshenziswa kwemithombo yamanzi esele.

Ukuze kuqaliswe lolu hlelo, uhulumeni waseShayina uhlonze umnyombo wokwesekwa kwenqubekelaphambili yesayensi nezobuchwepheshe, ukuqinisekisa uxhaso olwanele kanye nokuncishiswa kwezinhlekelele emphakathini. Okokugcina, ukusebenzisa izikhukhula ezingenakugwemeka zasemadolobheni ukuze kubhekwane nokuntuleka kwamanzi okubangelwa ukukhula ngokushesha kwedolobha kuyisibonelo esihle sesu laseShayina lokungagcini nje ngokufuna ukunciphisa izikhukhula nomthelela wazo ongemuhle, kodwa nokufuna ukuzuza kulezi zinhlekelele zemvelo zangempela.

 

USenator u-Alejandro Navarro uthe iChile kumele ilandele isibonelo saseChina, "iqonde ukuthi kumele ilindele amandla emvelo ngesu eliphelele lokuthi, ngaphezu kokwakha amadamu neminye imisebenzi, inake ukufundisa abantu futhi isebenzise izinhlelo zokunciphisa nokunye. izinyathelo. »

Ilungu lePhalamende lanezela: "Azikho izikhukhula ezilindelekile lapha futhi kunobufakazi obuningi balokhu, njengokwenzeka ePapen Canal ezinyangeni ezimbalwa ezedlule, lapho kungenziwanga lutho ukulawula amanzi. Izimvula ezidale ukuthi lo msele ugcwale wabulala. Makhulukhulu abantu, okokuqala uMbuso kumele unxephezele imindeni bese ubeka isu ukuze lolu hlobo lwamashwa lungaphinde lwenzeke ”, ephetha.

Ngethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda okwengeziwe ngezikhukhula e-China futhi ujabulele ukuzenza.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.