IGanges River

izigelekeqe zomfula

Enye yemifula ebaluleke kakhulu ezwenikazi lase-Asia nasemhlabeni yi Umfula iGanges. Ungomunye wemifula ethathwa njengengcwele kubuHindu, enezingu-2.500 sezizonke. Inokwandiswa kwamakhilomitha angaphezu kuka-XNUMX XNUMX futhi iqala ukugeleza kwayo eNdiya futhi iphelela eBangladesh. Ngalesi sizathu, inikezwa isihloko sosuku lomhlaba jikelele.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela zonke izici, ukungcola, izitshalo nezilwane zoMfula iGanges.

Izici eziyinhloko

Ukungcoliswa komfula iGanges

Yize ubaluleke ngokomlando, ngamasiko nangendlela yokuziphilisa, lo mfula usangcoliswe kakhulu ngoba uthola inani elikhulu lendle yabantu eligcina lingena olwandle. Lokhu kuyenza ibe ngomunye wemithombo eyinhloko yokungcola kwepulasitiki olwandle.

Njengomkhakha wezokuvakasha obalulekile emholweni wezomnotho waseNdiya, umfula iGanges ungenye yezimpawu zabantu bokufika. Ibhayisikili noma ezinye izindlela zokuhamba zisuka lapho zidabuka khona ziye ogwini lwentaba zingenye yezinto ezivame ukuheha izivakashi.

Lo mfula, owawubizwa ngeRio Blanco ekuqaleni, walahlekelwa umbala ngenxa yokungcola futhi wanikeza indawo eluhlaza okomhlaba manje. Umzila wayo ungamakhilomitha angama-2.500 16.648 ubude, ngokuhamba okuphakathi kwamamitha ama-cubic ayi-XNUMX ngomzuzwana, okungahluka ngokuya ngezinkathi zonyaka. Le ndawo ingamakhilomitha-skwele angama-907.000.

Umbhede womfula uphakelwa yimifudlana eminingi, ebonakala ngeziduli, futhi ukujula kulinganiselwa phakathi kuka-16 no-30 m. Yize kungewona umfula omude kunayo yonke emhlabeni, ngumfula obaluleke kakhulu eNdiya kanti u-80% wemifula useNdiya. Ihlukaniswe yaba izingalo ezincane nezinkulu ezingxenyeni ezahlukahlukene zomzila wayo, kwakheka inethiwekhi eyinkimbinkimbi yeziteshi, ezimele ukuheha okubonakalayo, futhi isemlonyeni wayo.

Okwamanje isingcoliswe kakhulu, kune-bacterium elinganiselwa ku-1,5 million ye-coliform nge-100 ml, engu-500 yayo elungele ukuphepha endlini yangasese. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ucwaningo lukhombisile ukuthi lugeze olwandle imfucumfucu eyizigidi ezingama-545 kilograms. UMfula iGanges usetshenziselwe ukuhlinzeka izakhamuzi ngempilo eshibhile namanzi ansuku zonke ngemisele nangezinhlelo zokunisela. Futhi, kukhona amadamu asendleleni yokuhambisa amanzi aye kwezinye izindawo.

Ukungcola Komfula iGanges kanye Nengozi

izidumbu eziphonswe emfuleni

Yize uMfula iGanges uthathwa njengendawo engcwele futhi unokubaluleka okuphawulekayo ngokomlando, kwezomnotho nakwezokuvakasha, uMfula iGanges ungcoliswe kakhulu. Labo abageza emanzini alo ngamabomu noma ngokungazi abalazi leli qiniso. Phakathi kokungcolisa okuvame kakhulu esingakuthola kulo mfula kukhona okulandelayo:

  • Ukwehluleka kwabantu ukulahla imfucuza ngendlela efanele
  • Amafektri asondelene nalawo angcolisa omunye wemingenela yawo eyinhloko, izinto ezingcolisayo zingena zigcwale wonke umfula.
  • Izitshalo eziphehla ugesi kagesi zilahla udoti futhi ziyiphatha kabi imvelo.
  • Imikhosi nemikhosi yezenkolo ithululela izidumbu eziphonswe emfuleni futhi ukubola kwazo kugcina kungcolisa amanzi.

Ngawo-1980, omunye waqala umkhankaso wokuhlanza iGanges, kodwa ngenxa yokungazi nokushiseka ngokweqile kwabantu ngokwenkolo, akuzange kube nomthelela omkhulu. Ngo-2014, indikimba iphinde yaphakanyiswa ngendlela enamandla amakhulu, kepha ayizange iveze imiphumela emihle kakhulu.

Ukungcola kuyinkinga enkulu ethinta imifula, ebeka abantu abayisebenzisayo kanye nezinto eziphilayo emanzini abo engcupheni. Kodwa-ke, akuyona ukuphela kwento esongela iGanges, ukushoda kwamanzi nezimayini ezingekho emthethweni kuyayisongela.

Ngesinye isikhathi, ukujula kwalesi sitsha kwafinyelela kumamitha angama-60, kepha manje sehliselwe kumamitha ayi-10. Ukuxazulula le nkinga, kwenziwa imishini yokukhipha amanzi namanzi angaphansi komhlaba, kepha imiphumela emibi isaqhubeka.

Izimbali nezilwane zomfula iGanges

ukungcola komfula ongcwele

Ngenxa yentuthuko yezolimo emgodini womfula iGanges, cishe yonke imifino yawo yasekuqaleni inyamalale. Kungabonakala ukuthi yiRobusta Shorea kuphela eye yakwazi ukumelana nengxenye ephezulu neBombax ceiba engxenyeni engezansi. Ubukhona obuqinile babantu kanye nemikhuba yesimo sezulu kule ndawo kuvimbela uhlaza oluningi ekukhuleni. Kodwa-ke, esizibeni saseGanges, kungenzeka ukuthola indawo eminyene yomhlume eSundarbans.

Lezi zinto ezifanayo, izimo zabantu nezesimo sezulu, ngaphezu kokungcola kwamanzi, zinomthelela omubi ebukhoneni bezinhlobo zezilwane eGanges. Imithambeka kuphela yezintaba zeHimalaya kanye nentaba iGanges enezindawo ezinokuthula ngokuqhathaniswa ngaphandle kokuphazamiseka okuningi okubangelwa abantu.

Ingxenye engenhla yalesi sigodi iyikhaya lobhejane baseNdiya, izindlovu zase-Asia, amahlosi aseBengal, amabhubesi aseNdiya, ama-sloth, nezinyathi. Njengamanje kungatholakala kuphela izinhlobo ezinjengempisi yaseNdiya, impungushe ebomvu ne-Bengal fox ne-jackal yegolide.

Phakathi kwalezi zinyoni kukhona ohlangothini, amaqhude, amagwababa echobana, izinkanyezi namadada afuduka ebusika. Izilwane ezisengozini yokulwa zihlanganisa i-antelope enezimpondo ezine, i-Indian bustard, i-bustard encane, kanye nehlengethwa lesilwane sasemanzini kazwelonke soMfula iGanges eNdiya.

Izilwane zasendaweni engezansi azihlukile kakhulu kuzilwane zasendaweni ephezulu, yize kungezwe izinhlobo ezifana ne-civet enkulu yaseNdiya kanye ne-otter ebushelelezi. Ingwe yaseBengal inendawo evikelekile esizalweni seGanges. Kulinganiselwa ukuthi kunezinhlobo ezingama-350 zezinhlanzi emanzini ayo.

Phakathi kwezilwane ezihuquzelayo, izingwenya yizona ezigqame kakhulu, njengezingwenya zasemanzini nezingwenya; kanye nezimfudu, njengofudu olunemigqa emithathu, ufudu omnyama waseNdiya, ufudu omkhulu weCantor, ufudu wase-Indian softshell, njll.

Njengoba ukwazi ukubona, omunye wemifula ethandwa kakhulu emhlabeni ungcoliswe ngokuphelele futhi ulahlekelwa yizinhlobonhlobo zezinto eziphilayo. Noma ngabe ngamasiko noma ngentuthuko yezomnotho, abantu bathinta kabi imvelo.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngoMfula iGanges nezimpawu zawo.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.