Izibalo zikaMaxwell

izibalo ze-maxwell

Kuwo wonke umlando kube nososayensi abaningi ababambe iqhaza elikhulu kusayensi esidale inqubekela phambili enkulu. Yilokho okwenzeka kusosayensi waseScotland uJames Clerk Maxwell. Lo sosayensi waqamba inkolelo yakudala ye-electromagnetism ngokunciphisa iqiniso lokuthi ukukhanya kwenziwa ngamandla kagesi nawamandla kazibuthe akhula ngokuqhubekayo emkhathini. Konke lokhu kwehliswa kwethulwe kufayela le- Izibalo zikaMaxwell ukukhombisa nokukhombisa umbono wakho. Le mbono yaholela ekubikezelweni kobukhona bamaza omsakazo namagagasi omsakazo.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela yonke i-biography, izimangaliso zomlando mayelana nokulingana kukaMaxwell.

UMaxwell Biography

usosayensi omuhle

Khumbula ukuthi bonke ososayensi baqala emsebenzini owenziwe abanye ososayensi abadlule. Lesi sisho sivezwa nguNewton emshweni othi "Bonke ososayensi basebenza emahlombe emidondoshiya". Lokhu kusho ukuthi iningi lezinto ezenziwayo zenziwa ngenxa yomsebenzi ayekade ewenza kwabanye ososayensi. Leli qiniso liyiqiniso ikakhulukazi endabeni kaMaxwell kwazise ukwazile ukuhlanganisa lonke ulwazi ebelivele lukhona iminyaka eyi-150 ngesihloko somsebenzi wakhe. Ngale ndlela, uzokwazi ukuveza izimiso zikagesi, uzibuthe, i-optics nokuhlangana kwazo ngokomzimba.

UJames Clerk Maxwell wazalelwa e-Edinburgh ngo-1831. Umndeni wakhe wawuphakathi. Le ndoda ibilokhu ibonakalisa ilukuluku elikhethekile kusuka ebuntwaneni bayo. Ngineminyaka engu-14 kuphela ngangivele ngibhale iphepha. Kuleli phepha ngichaze izindlela zokuqala zokwenziwa ukuze zikwazi ukwelapha amajika. Ufunde emanyuvesi ase-Edinburgh naseCambridge lapho amangaza khona abafundi nothisha banikezwa amandla akhe okuxazulula izinkinga zamanani. Zonke izinkinga zavela ezifundweni zezibalo neze-physics ezazinzima kwabanye abafundi.

Lapho eneminyaka engama-23 waphothula izifundo zezibalo eTrinity College kwathi eminyakeni emibili kamuva wakwazi ukuthola isikhundla sokuba nguSolwazi weFilosofi eMarischal College, eAberdeen. Wahlala kule sayithi iminyaka engu-4 futhi wayakha ulwazi oluningi. Ngendlela yokuthi ngo-1860 wakwazi ukuthola isikhundla esifanayo kodwa eKing's College, eLondon. Kungalesi sikhathi lapho isikhathi esithela kakhulu emisebenzini yakhe yonke saqala. Kule ndawo kwakukhona umnotho ongcono kakhulu owamvumela ukuba enze izivivinyo futhi avivinye imibono yakhe.

Izibalo zikaMaxwell

kuchazwe izibalo ze-maxwell

Izibalo zikaMaxwell mhlawumbe ziyifa elihle kakhulu elishiywe ngusosayensi. Njengoba izinga lakhe neminikelo yakhe kwezesayensi yayikhula, Wakwazi ukujoyina iRoyal Society ngo-1861. Yilapho umphakathi noma umbono wokukhanya kagesi wabuyela nomndeni wakhe ekhaya labazali bakhe eScotland. Wabekwa waba ngumqondisi welabhorethri yaseCavendish eCambridge ngo-1871. Ekugcineni wabulawa ngumdlavuza wesisu eneminyaka engama-48 ngo-1879.

Kungukushicilelwa kwendatshana enesihloko esithi "Umbono oshukumisayo wensimu ye-electromagnetic" lapho izibalo zikaMaxwell zivele okokuqala. Lezi zibalo yilezo ezisebenza ukuveza ngendlela ecacile futhi emfushane yonke imithetho yezinto eziphathelene nogesi namandla kazibuthe. Kumele kukhunjulwe ukuthi zazakhiwe kusukela ngekhulu le-XNUMX futhi wayethembele emithethweni ka-Ampère, Faraday noLenz. Njengamanje, isichasiselo se-vector esisetshenzisiwe sethulwa eminyakeni edlule nguHeaviside noGibbs.

Ukubaluleka kokulinganisa kukaMaxwell

amafomula zezibalo

Inani lalezi zibalo futhi alihlali kuphela ekuhlanganisweni kwayo yonke imibono yabo bonke ososayensi ababehlinzeka ngolwazi ngogesi kanye nakumazibuthe. Futhi yilokho Izibalo zikaMaxwell ziveze ubudlelwano obuseduze phakathi kukagesi namandla kazibuthe. Kusukela ezibalweni zayo, ezinye izibalo zingancishiswa, njenge-equation wave ebibikezela ukubakhona kwamagagasi wemvelo kagesi okwazi ukusabalalisa ngejubane lokukhanya.

Kulokhu kungaphethwa ngokuthi ukukhanya namandla kazibuthe kuyizinto zento efanayo nokuthi ukukhanya kuyiphazamiso kagesi. Ngenxa yalokhu, umsebenzi kaMaxwell usebenze ukuhlanganisa nokuhlanganisa i-optics ku-electromagnetism futhi kwembula ingqikithi kagesi ukukhanya okukhona kuyo. Umgogodla wokukhanya kagesi kwakufanele ucwaningwe elabhoratri futhi wenziwa ngusosayensi waseJalimane uHeinrich Hertz ngonyaka we-1887, eminyakeni edlule ngemuva kokushona kukaMaxwell.

Lokhu kungenziwa ngokwakha i-oscillator esebenza njenge-emitter kanye ne-resonator esebenza njengomamukeli. Ngenxa yalezi zinsiza kwenzeka ukudala amagagasi futhi sawathola endaweni ekude futhi lokhu kwadala ukuthi unjiniyela wase-Italy aqanjwe UGuillermo Marconi angaqedela inqubo yokukhiqiza inguquko kwezobuchwepheshe. Lokhu kuguquka kwezobuchwepheshe ukuxhumana kwezomsakazo. Ezinye zezinto zansuku zonke esinazo namuhla, njengamaselula, zisekelwe kulobu buchwepheshe obutholwe nguGuillermo Marconi.

Zonke lezi zizathu zanele ukukholelwa ukuthi ukulinganisa kukaMaxwell, ekuqaleni okungabonakala kungokwesayensi kunesayensi eyisisekelo, kugcine sekunezicelo ezinhle kubuchwepheshe banamuhla. Ukusetshenziswa kwezilinganiso zikaMaxwell kufikile ukuguqula umhlaba ngendlela yokuthi sikwazi ukuxhumana ukude ngokusebenzisa ezokuxhumana ngocingo.

Ifa

Yonke le minikelo ayikhawulwanga kuphela kumqondo we-electromagnetism nokukhanya. Khumbula ukuthi uMaxwell wayengusosayensi onelukuluku lokwazi futhi ozinikele ekutadisheni i-kinetics yamagesi ne-thermodynamics. Lezi zici zisetshenziswe ngezindlela ezahlukahlukene zokuhlaziya izibalo ukuthola ukuthi kungenzeka yini ukuthi inhlayiya yegesi ehlanjululwayo ibe nesivinini esinikeziwe. Lokhu kutholakala kwaba Namuhla ukubiza ngokuthi ukusatshalaliswa kukaMaxwell-Boltzmann.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngokulingana kukaMaxwell nokubaluleka kwazo.


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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.