Izimo zomkhathi

izenzakalo zasemkhathini

Siyazi ukuthi kuzo zonke izingqimba zomkhathi kunezimo zomoya kuphela ku-troposphere. I- izenzakalo zasemkhathini zenzeka emhlabeni wonke futhi zincike enanini lemisebe yelanga, izinga lokuthambekela kwemisebe yelanga, ingcindezi yasemkhathini, umbuso womoya, izinga lokushisa nezinye izinto eziningi eziguqukayo.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela ukuthi yiziphi izinto eziyinhloko ezisemkhathini ezikhona nokuthi yiziphi izici zazo.

Izimo zomkhathi

amafu nezimo zomkhathi

Iziphepho, iziphepho neziphepho

Ukuphazamiseka okunamandla komkhathi, okuhambisana nomoya, ukuduma kwezulu nombani nemvula enamandla. Zikhiqiza amafu athuthukile, okuthiwa amafu e-cumulonimbus. Inamazinga aphansi omoya oshisayo kakhulu futhi onomswakama ngokwanele noma omoya opholile ophakeme kakhulu (kwesinye isikhathi womabili).

Imvula iba lapho amafu ehlangana enze amathonsi amanzi amakhulu futhi amakhulu, avinjwe emoyeni ngumoya. Lapho lawa mafu esinda kakhulu, amanzi awe ngenxa yamandla adonsela phansi futhi azodala imvula, okuchazwa njengokuconsa noma imvula yamaconsi amanzi ngenxa yokuncipha komhwamuko wamanzi osemkhathini.

Isiphepho sihambisana nokudangala okuncane noma isiphepho, kodwa ngamandla amakhulu, okudala i-eddy ebonakalayo ebizwa ngeChimney ewela efwini lomama lesiphepho. Ngegama leSiphepho, iSiphepho noma isiphepho, kuya ngezindawo, kubizwa ngokuthi yisikhungo sezingcindezi eziphansi kakhulu, ezinemimoya enamandla nemvula. Imvamisa kwenzeka phakathi kwe-8º no-15º latitude eNyakatho naseNingizimu bese iya entshonalanga.

Ububanzi bezinkanyamba bungahluka kusuka kumamitha ambalwa noma amashumi wamamitha kuye emakhulwini amamitha. Umoya owenziwe isiphepho ungaba namandla kakhulu. Ingcindezi yehla kakhulu isuka ngaphandle iye enkabeni yesiphepho, okwenza ukuthi umoya ozungeze i-vortex unconyelwe endaweni yangaphakathi yengcindezi ephansi, lapho indawo yengcindezi ephansi ikhula futhi ipholile ngokushesha, imvamisa ukwakheka kwethonsi, kwakheka ifaneli ebonakalayo ejwayelekile. Ingcindezi ephansi yangaphakathi ye-vortex izothatha imfucumfucu, enjengezinhlayiya zokungcola noma ezinye izinhlayiya, ezizothwalwa ngayo bese zindiza endleleni, okwenza isiphepho sibonakale simnyama.

Isichotho neqhwa

Isichotho siqala ngemimoya enamandla futhi izinga lokushisa liphansi kakhulu, imimoya enamandla bese idonsela amaconsi amakhulu amanzi, lapho ukumiswa kweqhwa kungakhiqiza isichotho noma isichotho esingafinyelela amasentimitha ambalwa ububanzi. Ichazwa njengemvula eqinile eyakhiwe izinhlayiya eziyindilinga, eziyindilinga noma ze-biconvex ngaphansi kwesisindo sayo.

Lapho izinga lokushisa lingaphansi kuka-0ºC, amakhekheba eqhwa aqala ukuwa. Lawa ma-flakes akhiwa amakristalu amancane eqhwa futhi izinga lawo lokuwa liphansi kakhulu.

Izimo zesimo sezulu ngokusho kohlobo lwamafu

ukwakheka kwamafu

Umoya oshisayo okhuphukela ezingeni eliphakeme kakhulu lomkhathi uyaphola kancane lapho ukhuphuka, ubangele ukuthi umhwamuko wamanzi uhlangane ube ngamaconsi amancane, wakhe amafu.

Amafu angenye yezimo zomkhathi ezivame kakhulu futhi imvamisa abonakala kakhulu. Ukubukeka kwalesi simo kuthintwa yizici eziningi ze-thermodynamic, ezihlobene ngokuyisisekelo nomswakama, ingcindezi kanye nokushisa, kepha lokhu akukuqedi iqiniso lokuthi lapho kunqunywa ukubaluleka kwawo. Le nto inezinga elithile lokuzithoba ngenxa yemvelo yayo kanye nokwenza okuqondile. Lapho ubeka amazinga ezinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zamafu nokubukeka kwawo, ukuwabuka phansi noma ngokusebenzisa iziphuphutheki kuyinto esemqoka yokwahlulela.

Kunezinhlobo ezi-3 eziyinhloko zamafu ngokwendlela ezime ngayo nemiphumela yazo:

  • UCirrus: Bangamafu avela ekuphakameni okukhulu; mncane, usentekenteke, unesakhiwo esiyimicu; imvamisa ifana nezimpaphe futhi imhlophe njalo.
  • Amaqoqo: Angamafu ahlala evela njengabantu abaningi bamafu, anesisekelo esiyisicaba, futhi avame ukukhula ngesimo sezindlu eziqondile, isakhiwo sawo esifana nesokholifulawa, angamafu akudala, amhlophe ngokukhanyayo ezindaweni ezivezwe yiLanga nampunga kumnyama emthunzini.
  • I-Strata: Amafu anwebeka ungqimba, ahlanganisa konke, noma ingxenye enkulu, yesibhakabhaka. Uhlobo lwe-stratum ngokuvamile luqukethe ungqimba lwamafu oluqhubekayo olungabonisa ukuqhekeka okuthile, kepha lapho ubukhona bezinhlaka zamafu ngazinye bungehlukaniswa, okungukuthi, zingamabhange afanayo amafu aletha imvula nesichotho, asabalele kakhulu futhi anomfaniswano isakhiwo. UNimbus: (amafu aphansi, amafu amnyama anemvula emnyama).

Ezinye izenzakalo zomkhathi

uthingo ngemuva kwemvula

Izimo zomkhathi azibandakanyi nje imvula nezinto ezihlobene namafu. Ake sibone ukuthi yiziphi ezinye izinhlobo zezimo zomkhathi:

Imvula

Ngenye yezinto ezidume kakhulu nezinhle ezenzeka esibhakabhakeni. Zenzeka lapho lina, lapho amaconsi emvula esebenza njengezibuko, esakaza ukukhanya kuzo zonke izinhlangothi, ebola futhi akha uthingo. Lokhu kwakhiwa yi-arc eyakhiwa yimisebe yelanga eshaya iconsi lamanzi futhi chitha nge-engela engu- ~ 138 degrees. Ukukhanya kungena kudrophu, bese kubuyela emuva, bese kudlulela kolunye uhlangothi lwedonsa bese kukhombisa ingaphakathi lalo elingaphakathi, bese kugcina kuphinda kukhanya ekukhanyeni okubolile njengoba kuphuma kudrophu. Uthingo lwenkosazana luhlala amahora amathathu futhi luhlala lubonakala kolunye uhlangothi kusuka elangeni.

I-Auroras

Ama-Auroras yizinto ezenzeka ezindaweni eziseduze nezigxobo zomhlaba zikazibuthe ngoba zikhiqizwa ukuxhumana kwezinsika zomhlaba nezinhlayiya ezithwalwa umoya welanga. Lapho izinhlayiya zifinyelela emhlabeni, zishayisana nama-molecule asemkhathini ongaphezulu, ziwajabulisa (ziwakhiphe), akhiqiza i-aurora eyaziwayo. Ngokuya ngezwe abakulo, babizwa ngokuthi ama-aorora asenyakatho noma aseningizimu. Imvamisa, i-aurora ingabonakala kuphela ezindaweni ezingaphezulu kuka-65º (isb. i-Alaska, Canada), kepha ngezikhathi zomsebenzi osebenzayo welanga (njengezivunguvungu zelanga), kungabonakala kusuka ezindaweni eziphansi ezizungeze u-40º. Lezi zimo zingahlala cishe ihora futhi, uma zisebenza, zingahlala ubusuku bonke.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngezimo ezisemkhathini ezikhona nezici zazo.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.