Ithafa le-Abyssal

Uma sikhuluma ngaphansi kolwandle kanye nokwakheka kwezilwandle, sikhuluma nge ithafa elingenamkhawulo. Abantu bavame ukudida leli gama ne- Ipulatifomu yezwekazi, kepha inokwehluka okuningi. Ithafa lakwalasha yilokho esikubiza ngokuthi yingxenye yezwekazi elizika olwandle futhi lenze indawo enokuthambekela okuyisicaba. Imvamisa iba nokujula phakathi kwamamitha angu-2.000 6.000 no-XNUMX ngaphansi kogu lolwandle.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela ngazo zonke izici, ukubaluleka, izitshalo nezilwane zasethafeni elilahlwa kakhulu.

Izici eziyinhloko

Kuyingxenye yendawo yezwekazi okulula kakhulu ukuyibona ngoba iphrofayli yayo icishe ibe ngokuphelele. Kukhona umehluko omkhulu we-morphological nendawo yasemanzini eyizungezile. Ngokuvamile kunamaconsi amade njengemithambeka yezwekazi ngaphambi kokufika emathafeni alyssal. Lapho sesiphasile le morphology, sithola nokuwa okusha okungazelelwe. Lokhu kuwa kukhona imisele yolwandle nomgodi onganamkhawulo kwalasha.

Kunososayensi abalinganisela ukuthi yonke le mithambeka yolwandle emnene bangakha ama-40% ephansi olwandle. Ngenxa yalezi zindawo ezicabalele futhi ezijulile, umuntu angathola amadiphozi amakhulu kunawo wonke emhlabeni. Isici esiyinhloko singashiwo ukuthi indawo yayo icishe ibe yicaba ngokuphelele. Banokuthambekela okuncane kepha cishe akubonakali ngenxa yokwandiswa okukhulu lapho kukhula khona.

Kuwo wonke amathafa as kwalasha kufakwa amanani ahlukene enhlabathi abangelwa izinqubo zemvelo ezingaphandle kwezwekazi. Lezi zinqubo zibangelwa ikakhulu yi- ama-geological agents izinto zangaphandle zodwa ezenza ukuthi inhlabathi ibekwe olwandle. Izidumbu zihamba ngemisinga futhi zihlala ezinzulwini ezihlukene, zimboza izikhala. Ngenxa yalokhu, kwakhiwa amathafa lokho babhalisa kuze kufike kumamitha ayi-800 wezinto ezinamanzi.

Ukukhanya kwelanga akuvamisile ukufinyelela kuloku kujula ngakho-ke izinga lokushisa liphansi ngokwedlulele. Kunezindawo lapho izinga lokushisa licishe lifinyelele eqandeni. Ngalezi zimo ezimbi kakhulu zemvelo kukhula izitshalo nezilwane ezithile. Kuyiphutha ukucabanga ukuthi impilo ayithuthuki kulesi sifunda. Zonke izinto eziphilayo zigcina sezijwayela izimo ezikhona zemvelo.

Indawo nezakhi zethafa elilahlwa kwalasha

Iningi lala mathafa ligxile oLwandle i-Atlantic. Kunamathafa athile e-Indian Ocean kepha ahlala endaweni encane. Izakhi eziyinhloko ezinamathafa kwalasha yilezi ezilandelayo:

  • Izintaba-mlilo: lezi yizinto ezakhiwe ngenxa yokuqongelelwa kwezinto ezibonakalayo. Lokhu kwaziswa kuvela ekuqhumeni kwentaba-mlilo ngaphansi kolwandle. Okokusebenza kuqoqeka ngemuva kwezehlakalo zokuqhuma okuhlukile futhi kwakha umqolo omncane onamaphethelo achazwe kahle nezindonga eziseceleni.
  • Iziqhingi zezintaba-mlilo: Kungolunye uhlobo lokukhululeka ukuthi lawa mathambo akhona futhi angamagquma entaba-mlilo, ngenxa yokusebenza kwawo njalo nokuchichimayo, avele ngaphezulu. Kwesinye isikhathi baphakama ngisho namamitha angamakhulu amaningana ngaphezu kogu lolwandle.
  • Imibhobho ye-Hydrothermal: Lezi yizindawo ezinokwakheka okungajwayelekile lapho kuvela khona amanzi ashisayo kakhulu. Yize imvelo eseduze yale mibhobho icishe ibe ngama-degree ama-2, eduze nokubanda, amanzi anamazinga okushisa aphakathi kuka-60 no-500 degrees angaphuma kulawa ma-vent. Kumele kucatshangwe ukuthi kulezi zindawo ezinotshani lapho kutholakala khona amathafa abyssal kukhona ingcindezi enkulu futhi amanzi akwazi ukugcina isimo sawo samanzi naphezu kokushisa kwawo okuphezulu. Lokhu kwaziwa ngokuthi yi-supercritical fluid. Inhlanganisela yengcindezi kanye nosawoti wokuhlushwa kusho ukuthi amanzi angashintsha izakhiwo zawo futhi aqhubeke ebangeni phakathi kuketshezi negesi.
  • Ukuhlunga okubandayoYize kungesona isici somzimba esinjengalesi, kuyisenzeko esenzeka kuphela kulezi zigodi. Luhlobo lwachibi lapho kugxilwe khona inani elikhulu lama-hydrocarbon, i-hydrogen sulfide ne-methane. La magesi antanta ekujuleni. Ungathi kungathi kuyithonsi likawoyela engilazini yamanzi kube yisikali esikhulu. Ngokuhamba kwesikhathi, lokhu kugxila kuyachithwa futhi kwehliswe kuze kube yilapho inyamalala.
  • I-Guyot: kungenye into ukwakheka okuvela kuyo intabamlilo. Isakhiwo esinamadwala esinesimo se-tubular futhi kwesinye isikhathi siyakwazi ukuvela ngaphezulu. Kodwa-ke, phezulu kwayo kucishe kube yicaba, okukhombisa ukuthi kungenzeka ukuthi yonakaliswe isenzo somoya.

Izimbali nezilwane zasethafeni kwalasha

Ithafa le-Abyssal

Ngenkathi kutholakala lamathafa ayecatshangwa ukuthi ayizindawo ezinkulu ezingaphili zomhlaba. Njengasezingwadule ezikumazwekazi, kwakunjalo nalawa mathafa asolwandle olujulile. Ngokuba nenkinga enkulu lapho uvakashela lawa mathafa bekucatshangwa ukuthi azikho zombili izimpilo zezilwane nezilwane. Kodwa-ke, ucwaningo oluningi seluthole inhlobonhlobo enkulu yezinhlobo zezinto eziphilayo ezihlangana zombili kulezi zindawo nasezinhlakeni ezizungezile.

Kusukela kulokhu kujula ukukhanya kwelanga akufinyeleli alukho uhlobo lwezinhlobo zezitshalo ezikwazi ukwenza i-photosynthesis. Lapho impilo ingagxila khona isemaphethelweni we-hydrothermal okuyilapho inqubo yokuguqula ukushisa yenzeka khona. I-Chemosynthesis nayo iyenzeka lapha, okuyinqubo esetshenziswa yizinhlobo zezitshalo uku ube yingxenye yochungechunge lokudla kolwandle.

Ngokuqondene nezilwane, uma zicebile futhi zihlukahlukene. Kunezinhlobo ezibalelwa ku-17000-20000, yize kungahle kube nokuningi. Kunezinambuzane ezingenamgogodla ezinjengama-crustaceans, abasolwa, iminenke, amabhaktheriya, ama-protozoa nezinhlanzi ezinokubukeka kwesipoki nokungajwayelekile. Lezi zinhlobo azifundwa kahle ngenxa yobunzima bokufinyelela olwandle.

Njengoba ukwazi ukubona, lezi yizindawo ezingakaziwa ngabantu kepha zigcwele izimfihlo nokufuna ukwazi. Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngamathafa alasha.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

*

*

  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.