Idatha enkulu nekusasa ekubikezelweni kwesimo sezulu

idatha enkulu emhlabeni

I-Big Data iyisixhumanisi sokugcina ekubikezeleni izimo zezulu. Emhlabeni jikelele, izinkulungwane zezinkampani, izikhungo zesayensi, izikhungo, njll. Zisebenzisa i-Big Data ukuthola amaphethini noma ngabe ukuphi, idatha enkulu. Ku-meteorology, isayensi enedatha enkulu futhi enkulu kakhulu, iBig Data nayo inezinhlelo zayo eziwusizo. Lokhu Ithuluzi lesimanje futhi elinamandla, lingasetshenziswa ngezindlela eziningi. Yize iqanjwe njengento eyodwa, ingafinyelela izibikezelo eziningi ezahlukahlukene ngokuya ngokuthi ufunani. Vele, kufikile nasezimo zezulu, futhi lapha sizokutshela ukuthi yenzani nokuthi yenzani.

Okokuqala, masikukhumbule lokho isikhathi sokulindela besilokhu singesinye sezidingo eziyinhloko zabantu. Izinkulungwane zeminyaka eyedlule, izibikezelo zezulu zazibaluleke kakhulu, ngisho nangaphezu kwanamuhla, ukuze sisinde. Ukuthuthuka kwezobuchwepheshe bekungekho emaceleni, ukungazinzi kungaba nemiphumela emibi. Yize bekulokhu kunesidingo sokuvimbela isimo sezulu, kuze kwafika u-Aristotle lapho singaqamba khona igama elithi meteorology. Wayibiza ngokuthi "isimo sezulu", igama alinikeza incwadi yakhe, cishe eminyakeni engama-340 ngaphambi kukaKhristu.

Idatha enkulu ezibikezelweni

izibikezelo ezinkulu zedatha

I-logic yokuziphatha komkhathi ayimile ukukhula kusuka lapho. Isikhathi ngasinye ngokushesha. Ukudlula ku-thermometer okwasungulwa nguGalileo ngo-1607, kuya ekulingiseni kwekhompyutha okususelwa kwimininingwane eqoqwe amasathelayithi. Njengamanje, sibhekene ne-Big Data, abaningi bayavuma lokho iyithuluzi lokuguqula kakhulu ngoba i-intanethi ikhona futhi akuyona engezansi. Sengathi bekuyikusasa lesayensi eqanjiwe, namuhla singasho ukuthi likhona ngokoqobo.

Njengoba siphawulile, iBig Data iqala ukuphatha namhlanje, ngokunikeza lelo elinye iphuzu kubabikezeli bezulu. Lapho bengakwazanga ukuya khona, noma bakholwe ukuthi beqinisile ngaphandle kokuba khona, Idatha enkulu ikukhombisa obekufihliwe noma okungabonwanga, futhi ngezinga lokunemba elingakaze lifinyelelwe. Kunezinkampani esezivele zinikeza lezi zinsizakalo namuhla. Izikhungo, ohulumeni nezinkampani ezisebenzisa imininingwane emikhulu ukulindela isimo sezulu. Kodwa injani yonke le nqubo? Kwenziwa kanjani? Sizuza kanjani? Okulandelayo sizobona futhi siqonde ukuthi yonke le nqubo yokwenziwa kobuchwepheshe ingenzeka kanjani.

Isebenza kanjani iBig Data?

Cishe, Idatha enkulu ibeka ngaphezu kokubuka isibhakabhaka ukugxila kudatha, nokuthi zicutshungulwa kahle. Ukuze ukwazi ukuqonda kabanzi ngobukhulu bayo okushiwo yi-meteorology, okokuqala kuyadingeka ukuthi uchaze ukuthi isebenza kanjani.

idatha enkulu yesikhathi esizayo yokubikezela isimo sezulu

Idatha Enkulu inomgogodla wayo wokusebenza kulokho okubizwa ngama-4 V's.

Ivolumu

Lokhu kusho inani ledatha. Lonke leli datha eliqoqiwe yilokho okwaziwa njengevolumu. Ingahluka ngokuya ngokusetshenziswa, kwesinye isikhathi sinemininingwane eminingi futhi ezinye izikhathi "zincane". Lokho wukuthi, singasuka ezicucwini eziyizigidi eziyi-1.000 zedatha siye ezigidigidini eziningana, kuya ngokuthi iyiphi ehlaziyiweyo.

Isivinini

Ngisho, izinga okwenziwa ngalo idatha. Zivela kunesidingo sokuzibamba, ukuzigcina nokuzicubungula. Lapho kutholwa imininingwane eminingi, lapho kugcinwa khona ngokushesha, kulapho kufanele kuhlaziywe. Isivinini sibaluleke kakhulu ekubikezelweni kwesimo sezulu, ngoba izehlakalo zenzeka ngesikhathi sangempela, futhi kufanele zicutshungulwe ngokushesha okukhulu.

Izinhlobonhlobo

Kwesinye isikhathi kunendlela yokuthi leyo datha iza kanjani, kwesinye isikhathi ezinye. Uhlobo ngalunye lwedatha lunezigaba zalo. Kwesinye isikhathi ezinye ziyalahleka (kunamasu okulungisa lokhu, noma amaphutha abe makhulu) futhi ngezinye izikhathi eza ngamafomu wevidiyo ngisho. Kunenqwaba yedatha ehluke kakhulu, okuyi-Big Data ephethe ukubeka i-oda, i-logic ezohlaziywa kahle. Isibonelo, izilinganiso zokushisa ezivela ku-thermometer "azikwazi" ukufakwa kwiphakeji efanayo nezilinganiso zesathelayithi kusuka ngaphambili.

Ubuqiniso

Kuhlobene nobakaki bephoyinti langaphambilini. Kusho ukuthi idatha ekugcineni ihlanzekile, ngaphandle kwezinto "ezixakile". Amaqembu amakhulu okuphathwa kwedatha kumele abe neqembu elingakhethi eliqeqeshwe ukugcina isakhiwo esihle. Imiphumela yeqiniso elibi ledatha inemiphumela emibi kakhulu. Ukuthola umbono, kungaba sengathi iqembu lomakhenikha liqede ukulungisa imoto, bakhohlwa ukugoqa amasondo amabili.

umhlaziyi omkhulu wedatha ku-meteorology

Isibonelo ngobuqiniso bemininingwane

Sinamarekhodi amaningi avela ezindaweni eziningi. Ake sicabange ukuthi sinamazinga okushisa, amazinga omswakama, imimoya, njll. Kepha, sihlulekile, futhi siphuthelwa amanye amarekhodi okushisa endawo ethile, nganoma yisiphi isizathu, futhi asikwazi ukufinyelela ekwazini ukuthi yiliphi izinga lokushisa elirekhodiwe. Sinengqikithi yemininingwane engama-30, futhi ezimbili zazo, ngaphandle kokushisa ekugcineni.

Okungenziwa, isibonelo, ukubala izinga lokushisa elijwayelekile lalezo zifunda ukunquma ngokunembile izinga lokushisa elingabalwa kwirekhodi elilahlekile, kepha nangamamaki amancane kakhulu wephutha. Amanani izingxenye ezisele, bese ukubalwa kungasetshenziswa. Ukube le datha ibingekho, amakhompyutha abengeke ayibone, ukudala imbobo emnyama kudatha, nokubikezela okungalungile ngokuphelele.

Uyithola kanjani?

Ku-meteorology, njenganoma iyiphi insimu, idatha iza ngendlela yokuhlukahluka. Okusho ukuthi, ngayinye icutshungulwa ngendlela eyiyo. Futhi yize yonke into ibonakala ididekile futhi iyinkimbinkimbi, umsebenzi uba "lula" kubahlaziyi beBig Data. Okuguqukayo esingakuqopha ku-meteorology, yize kuseyidatha, bangaba ngabemindeni ehlukene. Lokho, okuguquguqukayo yinoma iyiphi idatha engahlukaniswa, kepha ayihlali ifana njalo.

i-nasa nedatha enkulu

Isithombe esingenhla, esinikezwe yi-NASA, sikhombisa ifayili le- isibonelo semisinga ezungeze iplanethi. Endabeni yeNASA, banenqwaba yeziphuphutheki ezibavumela ukuthi babuke futhi balinganise izenzakalo emhlabeni wonke ngesikhathi sangempela.

Idatha enkulu ingafunda yonke imikhondo okushiywa okuthile mayelana nokuthile, futhi lokho kungabhekwa njengedatha. Abaningi uma becabanga ngeBig Data, bazosheshe bacabange ukuthi sisebenzisa nini omakhalekhukhwini, sivula i-inthanethi, chofoza ekhasini, sithenge into online, noma siyithande ku-Facebook. Leyo yingxenye "encane" kepha eminyene kuphela, yebo, inokwethenjelwa futhi ibhalwe kahle. Kepha-ke, sishiya umzila womzimba / ongokoqobo, njengendawo ye-GPS yalapho sikhona, sibonga omakhalekhukhwini. Lapha sesivele siqala ukuxuba umhlaba obonakalayo nowenyama. Futhi-ke ukunyakaza komzimba konke lokhu kuhlala kufakwa kungobo yomlando, futhi-ke, ingahumushela kudatha ethe xaxa.

Okuguqukayo kungaba ngokwezigaba

Ukuhlukahluka kwesigaba yilokho okumela amanani noma okuguquguqukayo okukhawulelwe okungasho ubukhulu obukhulu obuthile. Zimelela ikhwalithi yento abayichazayo. Ngokuyinhloko ukucaciswa kwabo kungumkhawulo walokho abamele. Zingahlukaniswa zibe imikhakha emibili.

Ukuhluka okuhlukile kwesigaba

Yizo lezo umele izinto emkhakheni ofanayo ngaphandle kokuxhumeka okunengqondo ngamunye. Isibonelo: Igama lezifunda ezikhomba ukuthi amarekhodi avela kuphi, njengedolobha, umphakathi ozimele, ikhodi yeposi, njll.

Ukuhlukahluka kwezigaba okujwayelekile

Yizo lezo ingabonisa ubukhulu bento ethile, njengezinga likaDouglas ezingeni lamagagasi, izinga lesikali iziphepho ezingenziwa ngazo ngokwesilinganiso sazo, njll.

idatha enkulu yobudala bedijithali

Okuguqukayo kungaba yizinombolo

Ukuhlukahluka kwamanani yilokho amele amanani noma okuguqukayo ngaphakathi kobukhulu futhi angalinganiswa. Zimelela amanani wokulinganisa. Ukucaciswa kwabo ukuthi bangamelela uhla olukhulu kakhulu lwezilinganiso ezimweni zezulu. Zihlukaniswa ngezindlela ezimbili

Ukuhlukahluka kwamanani okuqhubekayo

Ukuhluka okuqhubekayo yilokho baphethe ukukala okuthile okusunguliwe. Izibonelo zazo kungaba yinkomba yomswakama, izinga lokushisa, isivinini somoya, inani lemvula, njll.

Ukuhlukahluka kwezinombolo okuhlukile

Yibo laba balandelela okuthile okusunguliwe. Okusho ukuthi, inani lezikhathi lapho lina imvula ngonyaka esifundeni, inani lezikhathi lapho likhithike khona, njll.

Zonke izinto eziguqukayo ziyacutshungulwa

Lapho konke okuguqukayo sekuhlukanisiwe, kucutshungulwa kubongwa kumakhompyutha, ihlale iqondiswa abahlaziyi ye-Big Data. Kuze kube yiminyaka embalwa edlule, inani ledatha ebelitholakala, yize bekuyinombolo enkulu kakhulu, bezingekho izinkinga ezingahlaziywa ngabahlaziyi bemininingwane. Ukuhlaziywa kwedatha enkulu, noma kunjalo, kubhekele ukuhlaziywa kwale datha enkulu, lapho izinqubo zokuhlaziya ebezivamile kuze kube namuhla, zingathatha isikhathi eside (size sikhulume ngezinsuku) ukunikeza impendulo. Akugcini lapho, iBig Data isebenza kahle futhi inembile, "ngokudlala" ngokuhlukahluka phakathi kwabo.

inguquko enkulu yedatha

Konke lokhu kuvela lokho esike saphawula ngakho phambilini ngama-4 V's Big Data, ukufeza isivinini, ukuthembeka kanye amamodeli wesimo sezulu anikeza izibikezelo ezinembile ngokumangazayo esikhathini esifushane kakhulu.

Idatha Enkulu njengesiyalo esisha

Isibonelo esihle kungaba ukukhuluma ngenkampani i-ACCIONA, ene- Isikhungo Sokulawulwa Kwamandla Avuselelekayo (ICECOER). Isikhungo esikhulu kunazo zonke emhlabeni lapho inhloso ukuhlinzeka ngezixazululo ngesikhathi sangempela, zezigidi zedatha eqoqwe ezikhungweni zayo, kokubili i-biomass, umoya namandla elanga. Ikhiqiza cishe amashejuli wonyaka we-3000 athatha yonke le datha ukuzivumelanisa nesidingo esidingekayo. Enye inzuzo ye-CECOER ukwamukela izehlakalo abanazo ezivela ezikhungweni zabo, ngakho-ke ama-50% azo axazululwa ukude. Ama-50% asele alungiswa ngokomzimba opharetha. Ngale ndlela, I-Acciona ithola amandla ayo avuselelekayo, ngaphezu kokuba ugesi ohlukile, namuhla isixazululo.

Isikhungo Sokulawula Amandla se-Acciona

I-CECOER ACCIONA

Elinye iqiniso elibalulekile ngeBig Data namuhla ukushoda kososayensi bemininingwane. Yinsimu esanda kuvela, futhi lokho kuye kwahlangabezana namazinga athile abekiwe ngaphambili. Ngabe iBig Data ingasiza kakhulu ekuguqukeni kwezibikezelo, ibike izinzuzo ezinkampanini, ikwazi ukulindela izinto eziningi kangaka futhi ithethelele izindleko zokuhlaziya idatha enkulu? Yebo Kodwa kuyinto ebonakale kancane kancane. Isidingo esikhulayo sososayensi bemininingwane sifanise imiphumela nangokuqonda isidingo sazo kuzo zonke izindawo. Kuyiqiniso ukuthi kunamaqembu amaningi we-Big Data asebenzayo, nemiphumela emangalisayo, kepha kumanje lapho sithola ukuthi kunesidingo esikhulu. Abahlaziyi beBig Data bafuna kakhulu.

Ngokuvumelana nalokho siphila uguquko abalushoyo entuthukweni, kodwa kusukela ekuqaleni. Njenganoma yimuphi umkhakha, manje sibona amandla ayo, kepha awukakhuli ngokuphelele, lokhu yinto ebekelwe thina isikhathi. Into eyodwa isivele ibonakala, amandla ayo wamanje, enye, ukuthi ingahamba ibanga elingakanani. Imiphumela yakho ngeke isishiye singenandaba.

isimo sezulu sedatha enkulu

Imephu yemodeli ye-IBM

Inkampani Yezulu Ye-IBM yinkampani yangasese ukuthi inikeza izibikezelo ezifika ezigidini ezingama-26 nsuku zonke mayelana nesimo sezulu. I-IBM kusukela ekuqaleni ivelele, futhi kanye neGoogle, ngokuba enye yezinkampani eziphayona kakhulu emkhakheni. Inkampani Yezulu izibophezele kakhulu ekusizeni abantu benze izinqumo ezinolwazi ngesimo sezulu. Yinethiwekhi enkulu kunazo zonke emhlabeni kusuka eziteshini zezulu zomuntu siqu. Imikhiqizo emikhulu emhlabeni yezindiza, amandla, umshuwalense, abezindaba kanye nohulumeni incike kwiThe Weather Company ukuthola idatha, amapulatifomu ezobuchwepheshe kanye nezinsizakalo.

Idatha enkulu emelene nokuguquka kwesimo sezulu

I-United Nations Global Pulse, isinyathelo esikhulu sedatha ye- Inhlangano Yezizwe kanye ne-Western Digital Corporation, basayine umfelandawonye wokulwa ndawonye ukulwa nokuguquka kwesimo sezulu. Le phrojekthi eholwa yi-UN neWestern Digital Corp., uhlanganise ososayensi bezinto ezintsha zedijithali ezivela emhlabeni jikelele ukuhlasela inkinga ngendlela esebenza kahle. Phakathi kwabo, sithola abahlanganyeli abavela emikhakheni ehluke kakhulu phakathi kwabo. I-BBVA, i-Orange, iPlanethi, ama-Plume Labs, i-Nielsen, i-Schneider Electric, i-Waze ... bangabanye balabo ababamba iqhaza kule phrojekthi.

Sithola ne- I-Barcelona Supercomputing Center (BSC), kuyimodeli yesi-4 ochungechungeni lweMareNostrum. Ikhompiyutha enkulu yokuhlaziywa kwedatha enkulu isihluthulelo emikhakheni eminingi, phakathi kwayo kukhona nokulwela ukuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu. Iqale ukusebenza ekupheleni kukaJuni kulo nyaka we-2017. Yikhompyutha yesithathu eshesha kunazo zonke eYurophu, kwenziwe utshalomali kuyo ukufakwa kwayo ngama-euro ayizigidi ezingama-34 nguMnyango Wezomnotho, Ezimboni Nokuncintisana eSpain. Inamandla we-14 Petabytes, okungukuthi, ama-Gigabyte ayizigidi eziyi-14. Ifinyelela ku-11,1 Petaflops, okungukuthi, ubulukhuni bemisebenzi eyizigidi eziyizinkulungwane eziyi-11.100 ngomzuzwana.

Idatha enkulu esikhathini esizayo semeteorology nasezimpilweni zethu

Ezweni eliguqukayo, lapho izinguquko ziqala ukushesha, futhi kumangala ngokwengeziwe, kunzima ukubikezela ikusasa lokuthile. Esikwaziyo impela yilokho Idatha enkulu isizinzile, nokuthi izibikezelo zenza isimo sezulu kanye nakwezinye izindawo zisishiya sikhungathekile. Abanye bazohlala bengabaza, abanye bazokuphika, abanye bazokubona njengento ekude. Kepha iqiniso ukuthi, sesivele siphila nayo.

Namuhla siyazi ukuthi iBig Data ilindele izimvula eziningi, izinkathi zeziphepho, futhi nangokunemba okukhulu inani lezindondo izwe elingazuza kuma-Olympic Games. Iphinde ilindele ukuthi ngubani, kuphi futhi nini ubugebengu obuzokwenziwa (uma ngabe kukhona oke wabona i-movie ethi "Minority Report" iwele ezingqondweni zakhe, akunjalo?). Idatha enkulu ihamba ngokushesha ibheke ekulindeleni ikusasa lezindawo eziningi, futhi i-Amazon iqala ukuyilindela, futhi muva nje isiqalile ukuthunyelwa nangaphambi kokuba amakhasimende athenge. Ikusasa laze lafika namuhla, imvamisa lingaqinisekile. Kepha kuyashintsha ikusasa liyabikezelwa.

intombazane ibhola amandla

Siyazi ukuthi amandla ayo azokhula. Kwazi bani, kungahle kube ngamawala ukulindela ukuthi ngubani okulindele okuthile (i-Big Data) okuthile. Kepha ngemininingwane eyanele, Ngabe iBig Data izokwazi ukulindela isimo sezulu somhlaba jikelele ngokulangazela okukhulu? Yebo. Njengoba nje ungalindela ukuthi izenzo zethu zinganikeza izimo ezahlukahlukene kulabo abanikezwe phambilini, ngoba noma yisiphi isenzo sinesimo saso ngokuzayo, futhi iBig Data iyayazi futhi iyayihlola kabusha, inikeze esinye isimo esisha.

Konke kungalindelwa. Ngabe sizokwazi ukwazi ukuthi kuzokwenzekani kithi kungekudala? Iziphi izinkinga esizohlangabezana nazo? Sizogadla nini futhi kuphi isiphepho? Yini okuzofanele siqhubeke nokuyixazulula? Njengoba amasu ethuthuka, amakhompyutha athuthuka ngokusebenza kahle nangejubane, le nsimu iyaqhubeka nokukhula ... Kungenzeka kakhulu ngukuthi kunokuphendula "ngubani owaziyo", mhlawumbe into efaneleke kakhulu kuzoba ukuthi "asibuze i-Big Data."

Ozakwethu be-BA | Ukuvuselelwa kukaWillis | IBHODI


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Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.