Isikali seFujita

i-tornados

Njengoba ungalindela, njengoba nje kunesilinganiso sokukala iziphepho nokuzamazama komhlaba, kukhona nesikali sokukala ubukhulu besiphepho. Lesi sikali saziwa njenge Isikali seFujita. Yisikali esimele amazinga okuqina namandla okwenza umonakalo kusuka ezinkanyaneni.

Kule ndatshana sizokutshela ngazo zonke izici nokubaluleka kwesikali seFujita.

Yini isiphepho

isikali se-fujita esithuthukisiwe

Okokuqala, kumele sazi ukuthi siyini isiphepho nokuthi yiziphi izici zaso. Isiphepho ungumoya omkhulu owakhiwa nge-angular velocity ephezulu. Imikhawulo yesiphepho itholakala phakathi ubuso bomhlaba nefu le-cumulonimbus. Kuyisimo somkhathi esiyindilinga esinamandla amakhulu, yize kuvame ukuhlala isikhathi esifushane.

Iziphepho ezakhiwe zingaba nosayizi nobukhulu obuhlukile nesikhathi esivame ukuhlala ngaso phakathi kwamasekhondi ambalwa nangaphezulu kwehora. Isiphepho morphology esaziwa kakhulu yi ifaneli lefaneli, onomphetho omncane uthinta phansi futhi uvame ukuzungezwa yifu elihudula lonke uthuli nemfucumfucu elizungezile.

Ijubane elingafinyelelwa yiziphepho liphakathi 65 no-180 km / h futhi ingaba ngamamitha angama-75 ububanzi. Izinkanyamba azihlali lapho zakhiwe khona, kepha kunalokho zihamba ziwela indawo. Imvamisa zihamba amakhilomitha ambalwa ngaphambi kokunyamalala.

Okuqine kakhulu kungaba nemimoya enejubane elingaguquguquka ngo-450 km / h noma ngaphezulu, linganisa kuze kufike ku-2 km ububanzi futhi uhlale uthinta inhlabathi ngaphezu kwamakhilomitha ayi-100 womzila.

Isikali seFujita

amagugu wejubane lomoya

Lapho sesazi ukuthi siyini isiphepho, siyabona ukuthi isikali seFujita sisetshenziselwa ukulinganisa ubukhulu besiphepho. Yisikali esibhekele ukuhlukanisa iziphepho ngokuya kobukhulu ngokuya ngomonakalo ezingadala. Lesi sikali sakhiwa ngo-1971 ngumcwaningi waseMelika uTetsuya Theodore Fujita, isazi sezulu esisebenzisana no-Allan Pearson, iCentre for Storm Prediction (ukubikezela isiphepho) e-United States. Yamukelwa ngokushesha ngumphakathi wesayensi nesimo sezulu.

Isikali seFujita sizama ukusungula amandla omoya namandla okwenza umonakalo. Ake sibone ukuthi yimaphi amaphuzu ahlukene alesi sikali senkanyamba esinawo:

  • Amandla omoya F0: Kuyingxenye yesikali esichaza ubukhona bezivinini zomoya eziphakathi kuka-60-120km / h. Lapha umonakalo obonwayo ukuphulwa kwamagatsha, ukuguquguquka kwezimpawu zomgwaqo, izimpondo zethelevishini ezisontekile, njll. Ziyimonakalo emincane engabangeli izinkinga ezinkulu.
  • Amandla omoya F1: Bangumoya olinganiselayo onesivinini esiphakathi kuka-120-180 km / h. Kubangela umonakalo njengokugqekezwa kwamathayili aphansi, ama-trailer agingqikile, izimoto eziphukile, njll.
  • Amandla omoya F2: Le yimimoya enejubane eliphakathi kuka-180 no-250 km / h. Ngaleli jubane lomoya, siyabona ukuthi umonakalo owenzekayo ukuqhekeka kwezindonga nophahla lwezakhiwo.
  • Amandla omoya F3: ngamandla athatha imimoya ngesivinini esiphakathi kuka-250 no-330 km / h. Ngalesi sivinini somoya, siyabona ukuthi kukhona umonakalo ongabonakala, njengokuphuka ngokuphelele kwezindonga nophahla lwezindlu, ukugawula amahlathi ngokuphelele, njll. Kulezi zimo, siyabona izindonga nophahla lwezindlu zindiza ngenxa yejubane elikhulu lomoya.
  • Amandla omoya F4: ilingana nejubane lomoya eliphakathi kuka-330 kuya ku-420 km / h. Lapha sibona umonakalo owenziwe ngokuqinile njengezakhiwo ezingenazisekelo nezimoto eziguqulwe ngokuphelele. Ukuqina kwalezi ziphepho ze-blair kuyakhathaza impela ngoba kuthatha izimpilo zabantu.
  • Amandla omoya F5: ihambelana nemimoya eyeqisayo ngamanani asukela ku-420 kuye ku-510 km / h. Umonakalo odalekile ubhujiswe ngokuphelele izakhiwo, izitimela ezihamba dengwane, njll. Lizinga eliphakeme kakhulu esikalini seFujita futhi elikhathaza kakhulu.

Izici zesikali seFujita

isikali se-fujita

Ezinye izinto zalesi sikali seziphepho kumele zibhekwe, njengokuthi azibheki izinga lokwakhiwa kwezakhiwo ezonakele. Lokho ngemuva kwesici esibalulekile okufanele usicabangele ngoba kunezakhiwo eziningi ezinendawo ephansi kwazise sezindala noma zakhiwe ngezinto ezishibhile. Kulezi zimo, ukuqina kwesiphepho akukwazi ukukalwa njengomsebenzi wamandla okubhubhisa ngokunemba okufanayo.

Kunezifundo eziningi ezikhombisile lokho Isikali seFujita siveza isilinganiso sejubane lomoya i-3, F4 ne-F5. Lokhu kungenxa yokuthi ikhwalithi yezinto zokwakha ezisuswe ngesikhathi seziphepho azinakwa. Ngakho-ke, kukhona uhlobo oluthuthukisiwe lwalesi sikali oludalwe yi-US National Weather Service ngo-2006 futhi manje selusekelwe kuzinkomba zomonakalo ezingama-28, kucatshangelwa izinhlobo zezakhiwo noma izakhiwo. I-Enhanced Fujita Scale noma i-EF (Enhance Fujita) iyisikali sokulinganisa samandla ezinkanyamba ngenxa yomonakalo odalekile. Isetshenziswe e-United States kusukela ehlobo lika-2007.

Isikali esithuthukisiwe

Ake sibone ukuthi yimaphi amaphuzu ahlukene ahlaziywa esikalini esithuthukisiwe seFujita:

  • I-EF0 Izingxenye ezisuswe ophahleni (amathayili, amathayili), ama-gutters, oshimula kanye nohlangothi olonakele.
  • I-EF1 : Izingxenye zophahla zisuswe ngokuphelele, iminyango yangaphandle isusiwe, amawindi aphukile.
  • I-EF2 - Uphahla lushaywa ezindlini eziqinile, izindlu zibhujiswe ngokuphelele, izihlahla ezinkulu ziphukile noma zisiphulwa.
  • EF3: Phansi kwemizi eqinile ecekeleke phansi, kugingqike izitimela, kukhonkotha izihlahla, kuphakamisa izimoto.
  • I-EF4 - Izindlu ezakhiwe kahle nezimoto ezishayisiwe, izinto eziningi ziphendulwa imicibisholo.
  • EF5: Izindlu eziqinile zikhukhulekile futhi izinto ezifana nosayizi wemoto ziyamunzwa emoyeni.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngezinga leFujita nezimpawu zalo.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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Shiya umbono wakho

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.