Isigodi seGlacier

iqhwa e-Iceland

Izigodi zeqhwa, ezaziwa nangokuthi izigodi zeqhwa, zibhekisela ezigodini lapho izinguzunga zeqhwa ezinkulu zizungeza khona noma uma sezike zasakazwa, zishiya ukwakheka komhlaba okucwebezelayo. A isigodi seqhwa Kubaluleke kakhulu ukuhlukahluka kwemvelo kwemvelo kanye nokulingana kwemvelo.

Ngalesi sizathu, sizokutshela konke odinga ukukwazi mayelana nokuthi siyini isigodi seqhwa, izici zayo ze-geomorphology.

Iyini isigodi seqhwa

isigodi sase-cantabrian

Izigodi zeqhwa, ezivame ukubizwa ngokuthi imigodi yeqhwa, yilezo zigodi lapho singathola khona ukuthi zishiye izinhlobo zosizo ezivamile zezinguzunga zeqhwa.

Ngamafuphi, izigodi ezinoqhwa zifana nezinguzunga zeqhwa. Izigodi ezinoqhwa ziyakhiwa lapho inani elikhulu leqhwa linqwabelana kuma-glacial cirques. Iqhwa elisuka ezingqimbeni ezingezansi ekugcineni liya phansi esigodini, lapho ligcina libe yichibi.

Esinye sezici eziyinhloko zezigodi ezinoqhwa ukuthi zinesigaba esiphambanayo esimise okwe-trough, yingakho zibizwa nangokuthi i-glacial troughs. Lesi sici isici esiyinhloko esivumela izazi zokwakheka komhlaba ukuthi zihlukanise lezi zinhlobo zezigodi lapho inani elikhulu leqhwa lishelela khona noma like lishelele. Ezinye izimpawu zezigodi ezinoqhwa ukuguga kwazo nokumbiwa kwazo ngokweqile, okubangelwa ukungqubuzana kweqhwa nokuhudulwa kwempahla.

Izinguzunga zeqhwa zasendulo eMhlabeni zafaka izinto ezazigugulwe yiqhwa ngaphambili. Lezi zinto zihlukile kakhulu, futhi ngokuvamile zakha ezahlukene izinhlobo zama-moraine, njengama-moraines aphansi, ama-moraine aseceleni, ama-moraine awela phansi, futhi okubi nakakhulu, okuvame ukwakhiwa phakathi kwechibi elidumile le-glacial. Izibonelo zalokhu kwamuva amachibi anoqhwa esingawathola emaphethelweni e-European Alps (ebizwa ngokuthi i-Como, iMeya, iGarda, iGeneva, iConstanta, njll.) noma kwezinye izindawo ezimaphakathi neSweden nezinye eziningi.

Amandla esigodi seqhwa

izici ze-glacial Valley

Ngokuphathelene nendlela yokuguguleka kwezinguzunga zeqhwa, kubalulekile ukuphawula ukuthi izinguzunga zeqhwa ziguguleka kakhulu futhi zingasebenza njengamabhande okuthutha izinto zabo bonke osayizi abanikelwe yimithambeka, ziziyise ezigodini.

Futhi, kunenani elikhulu le- meltwater endaweni yeqhwa, engajikeleza ngesivinini esikhulu emiseleni engaphakathi kweqhwa, ilayishe izinto ezingaphansi kweqhwa, futhi le misinga engaphansi kweqhwa iphumelela kakhulu. Izinto ezithwalayo zidala ukuhuzuka, futhi amatshe angaphakathi kweqhwa angachotshozwa abe ingxube ecolekileyo yodaka kanye nofulawa wobumba weqhwa.

Ama-glaciers angasebenza ngezindlela ezintathu eziyinhloko futhi yilezi: ukuqala kwe-glacial, abrasion, thrust.

Lapho kubiwa amatshe aphukile, amandla omfula weqhwa anganyakaza futhi aphakamise izingcezu ezinkulu zamadwala aphukile. Eqinisweni, iphrofayili yobude yombhede weqhwa ayijwayelekile kakhulu, enezindawo ezinwebekayo futhi ezijula ​​ngendlela yemisele ebizwa ngokuthi imikhombe noma imikhombe, ejuliswa ukumbiwa ngokweqile kwamadwala angambiwa kangako futhi amelana kakhulu. Le ndawo ibe mincane futhi ibizwa ngokuthi i-latch noma i-threshold.

Esigabeni esiphambanayo, amapulatifomu akhiwa emadwaleni aqinile acaba ngobude obuthile, abizwa ngokuthi ama-shoulder pads. Ukuhuzuka kuhlanganisa ukugaywa, ukuklwetshwa, kanye nokugaywa kwezingcezu zamatshe ezithwalwa yiqhwa. Lokhu kudala imihuzuko nama-grooves. Ekupholishweni, yizici ezingcono kakhulu, njenge-sandpaper etsheni.

Ngesikhathi esifanayo, ngenxa yokulimala, amadwala ayachotshozwa, akhiqize ubumba nodaka, okwaziwa ngokuthi i-ice powder ngenxa yobukhulu bawo bokusanhlamvu, equkethwe emanzini ancibilikayo futhi anokubonakala kobisi oluncibilikisiwe.

Ngokuphokophela, iqhwa lithutha futhi liphushele liqonde kuyona into ebolayo eliyichoboza futhi liyiguqule njengoba kuchazwe ngenhla.

amafomu okuguguleka

isigodi seqhwa

Phakathi kwazo ziyaziwa amasekisi, i-tarn, ama-ridge, uphondo, intamo. Uma kwenziwa imodeli ye-glacial valleys, kuvame ukuthatha izigodi ezikhona, ezinwebeka futhi zijule ngendlela engu-U. Izinguzunga zeqhwa zalungisa futhi zaba lula amajika ezigodi zangempela kanye nama-rock spurs agugulekile, okwenza ama-spurs amakhulu angunxantathu noma ancishisiwe.

Ephrofayilini evamile yobude besigodi esiwuqhwa, izitsha eziyisicaba kanye nezandiso ziyalandelana, zenze amaketanga amachibi athola igama labazali bethu lapho izitsha zigcwala amanzi.

Kubo, i-Hanging Valley iyisigodi sasendulo esingenela iqhwa eliyinhloko. Zichazwa ngenxa yokuthi ukuguguleka kwezinguzunga zeqhwa kuxhomeke ebukhulu beqhwa, futhi izinguzunga zeqhwa zingajulisa izigodi zazo kodwa hhayi imifula yazo.

Ama-Fjords akha lapho amanzi olwandle engena ezigodini ezinoqhwa, njengalezo eziseChile, Norway, Greenland, Labrador, kanye namafjord aseningizimu kakhulu e-Alaska. Ngokuvamile zihlotshaniswa namaphutha kanye nokwehluka kwe-lithological. Bafinyelela ekujuleni okukhulu, njengesiteshi sikaMesiya eChile, okuyinto Ingamamitha angu-1228 ukujula. Lokhu kungachazwa ngokumbiwa ngokweqile kokuguguleka kweqhwa ngaphansi kwezinga lolwandle.

I-glaciation ingaphinda ilingise amadwala akha amatshe anjengezimvu, izindawo zawo ezibushelelezi, eziyindilinga ezifana nomhlambi wezimvu ezibukwa phezulu. Zihluka ngosayizi ukusuka kumitha elilodwa kuye kwamashumi amamitha futhi ziqondaniswe lapho kugeleza iqhwa. Uhlangothi lomthombo weqhwa lunephrofayili ebushelelezi ngenxa yomphumela wokugaya, kanti olunye uhlangothi lunamaphrofayili angular futhi angavamile ngenxa yokususwa kwamadwala.

Amafomu wokuqongelela

Amaqhwa anciphile kusukela enkathini yokugcina yeqhwa, cishe eminyakeni engu-18.000 edlule, ebonisa ukukhululeka okuzuzwe njengefa kuzo zonke izigaba ababekuzo phakathi nenkathi yokugcina yeqhwa.

Amadiphozithi e-glacial amadiphozithi akhiwe ngezinto ezifakwe ngqo yizinguzunga zeqhwa, ngaphandle kwesakhiwo esinemigqa futhi izingcezu zazo zinemigqa. Ngokombono wosayizi wokusanhlamvu, ahlukahlukene, kusukela kufulawa weqhwa kuya ezilinganisweni ezingazinzile ezithuthwa amakhilomitha angu-500 ukusuka endaweni yazo, njengalezo ezitholakala eCentral Park eNew York; eChile, eSan Alfonso, ekhabetheni laseMaipo. Lapho lezi zimali zihlangana, zakha ama-tillite.

Igama elithi moraine lisetshenziswa ezinhlotsheni ezimbalwa ezihlanganisa ikakhulukazi izintaba. Kunezinhlobo eziningana zama-moraine namagquma amade abizwa ngokuthi ama-drumlin. I-moraine yangaphambili iyindunduma engaphambili kweqhwa elakheka ku-arc lapho iqhwa lihlala lizinzile endaweni eyodwa iminyaka noma amashumi eminyaka. Uma ukugeleza ku-glacier kuqhubeka, inzika izoqhubeka inqwabelana kulo mgoqo. Uma izinguzunga zeqhwa zincipha, ungqimba lwe-moraine ehlehla kancane, olubizwa ngokuthi i-basal moraine, luyafakwa, njengasezindaweni ezingamaxhaphozi zesifunda saseGreat Lakes e-United States. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, uma iqhwa liqhubeka lihlehla, unqenqema lwalo oluphambili lungase luzinze futhi, lwakhe i-moraine ehlehlayo.

Ama-moraine angemuva ajwayelekile ezigodini zeqhwa futhi athwala inhlabathi emaphethelweni esigodi, ebeka amagquma amade. Amafomu e-moraine amaphakathi lapho kuhlangana khona ama-moraine amabili asemaceleni, njengalapho kuhlangana khona izigodi ezimbili.

Ama-drumlin angamagquma ahambisanayo abushelelezi, azacile akhiwe amadiphozithi e-moraine abekwe phansi yizinguzunga zeqhwa zezwekazi. Zingafinyelela kumamitha angama-50 nekhilomitha ubude, kodwa eziningi zincane. E-Ontario, eCanada, atholakala emasimini anamakhulu ezigubhu. Okokugcina, amafomu akhiwe ngezingcezu zeqhwa ezihlukanisiwe ezifana ne-kame, ama-kame terraces kanye nama-esker ayatholakala.

Ngithemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi mayelana nokuthi iyini isigodi se-glacial nezici zayo.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.