ukuthi isibonakude sisebenza kanjani

izindlela zokubona isibhakabhaka

Isibonakude kwakuyinto esunguliwe eyaguqula ulwazi lwesayensi yezinkanyezi kuwo wonke umlando. Ukusebenzisa izakhiwo zamalensi nezibuko, kunesibopho sokucubungula ukukhanya okukhishwa izinto ukuze iso lomuntu likhulise futhi lithwebule izithombe. Njengamanje kunezinhlobonhlobo zemiklamo ongakhetha kuzo kanye nezesekeli ezithengiswayo. Ngakho-ke, ngaphambi kokuphuthuma ukuyothenga isibonakude sabo sokuqala, umuntu othanda ukuzilibazisa ungenza kahle ngokujwayelana nendlela isibonakude esisebenza ngayo, izingxenye zaso, kanye nemikhawulo yaso. Ngale ndlela, ungagwema ukudumazeka ngokuthenga okubi. Abantu abaningi abazi ukuthi isibonakude sisebenza kanjani.

Ngalesi sizathu, sizochaza isinyathelo ngesinyathelo ukuthi isibonakude sisebenza kanjani nokuthi yini okufanele uyicabangele ukuze ufunde ukuthi isetshenziswa kanjani.

yini isibonakude

bheka inyanga

Kwesinye isikhathi abantu banombono ocatshangelwe ngaphambilini wokuthi isibonakude singabakhombisa ini. Ngokuvamile balindele ukubona imininingwane eminingi kunalokho isibonakude esingavezwa ngama-optics ayo. Esimweni esinjalo, isibonakude esihle singabonakala ngephutha njengesibonakude esibi. Ngokwesibonelo, amaplanethi awabukeki emakhulu futhi emahle. Izithombe ezithathwe uphenyo lwasemkhathini lapho zivakashela amaplanethi ahlukahlukene ngezinye izikhathi ziyasimangaza.

Igama elithi telescope livela empandeni yesiGreki: lisho "kude" futhi "ukubona". Kuyithuluzi lokubona eseliphenduke ithuluzi eliyisisekelo kusayensi yezinkanyezi, elivumela ukuthuthuka okuningi kanye nokuqonda okungcono kwendawo yonke.

Ithuluzi lisiza ukubona izinto ezikude kakhulu ngokuningiliziwe. Izibonakude zithwebula imisebe yokukhanya, zisondeza izithombe zezinto ezikude. Amasevisi e-:

  • I-astronomy ithwebula izithombe zezinto zezinkanyezi.
  • Isetshenziselwa ukubuka izinto ezikude kule mikhakha elandelayo: ukuhamba, ukuhlola, ucwaningo lwezilwane (inyoni), kanye namabutho ahlomile.
  • Njengethuluzi lokufundisa izingane ukuqala isayensi.

ukuthi isibonakude sisebenza kanjani

isibonakude sisebenza kanjani

Ukuze uqonde ngokugcwele ukuthi isibonakude sisebenza kanjani, kunezinto ezi-2 okufanele uzikhumbule:

  • Ukuziphatha kweso lomuntu: kumele sikuqonde ukuze sithuthukise amakhono abo.
  • izinhlobo zezibonakude - ukwazi ukuthi basebenza kanjani. Sizobheka ezivame kakhulu, okuyizibonakude ezikhombisayo kanye nezibonakude eziphindayo.
  • ukuziphatha kweso lomuntu – Iso lakhiwe ngomfundi (osebenza njenge-lens) kanye ne-retina (ebonisa ukukhanya). Uma ubheka izinto ezikude, ukukhanya ekukhiphayo kuyindlala. Ilensi yemvelo yeso lethu (umfundi) ibonisa isithombe esincane kakhulu kuyi-retina. Uma into iseduze, ikhipha ukukhanya okwengeziwe futhi ikhule ngosayizi.

Endabeni yesibonakude, isebenzisa amalensi nezibuko ukuze iqoqe ukukhanya okuningi ngangokunokwenzeka entweni, igxilise le misebe, futhi ikuqondise esweni. Lokhu kwenza izinto ezikude zibukeke kangcono futhi zizikhudlwana.

izinhlobo zezibonakude

sisebenza kanjani isibonakude ukubona isibhakabhaka

Nakuba kunezinhlobo eziningana (zikhona ngisho nezinhlobo zezinombolo), ezivame kakhulu nezisebenza kahle kuze kube manje yilezi:

  • Isibonakude esibonakalayo: Akusona isibonakude esikhulu, ungasebenzisa hhayi amalensi kuphela kodwa nezibuko. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, sizoba nendawo okugxilwe kuyo (ilensi yokufaka yokukhanya kwenkanyezi), bese sizoba nesibuko esiphucuzeke kakhulu ngezansi (isigxobo esiphambene) esizobonisa isithombe. Njengokungathi lokho akwanele, phakathi nendawo sizoba nesinye isibuko esincane "sokugoba" isithombe, okuzoba isinyathelo sokugcina ngaphambi kokuhambisa i-eyepiece, esizoyisebenzisa ukuze sibheke ohlangothini lwesibonakude.
  • Isibonakude se-Refractor: Lezo izibonakude ezinde kakhulu. Ngakolunye uhlangothi sizoba nendawo okugxilwe kuyo (i-lens enkulu engagxilisa ukukhanya okuningi ngangokunokwenzeka; inobude obude bokugxila), kanti ngakolunye uhlangothi kukhona i-eyepiece (i-lens encane esizobheka ngayo; ubude bokugxila okude). ukugxila okufushane). Ukukhanya okuvela enkanyezini (into okufanele ibhekwe) kungena endaweni okugxilwe kuyo, kudlule kubude bokugxila obude okwakhiwa usayizi wayo omkhulu, bese kuqala ngokushesha indlela emfushane ngobude bokugxila be-eyepiece, okwandisa kakhulu isithombe. Uma isibonakude esiphindaphindayo isikhathi eside, kulapho isithombe siyakhula.

izingxenye zesibonakude

Ukuze sazi ngempela ukuthi isibonakude sisebenza kanjani, kufanele sazi izingxenye zayo. Akuwona wonke ama-telescopes asebenzisa amalensi kuphela. Kunezinhlobo ezithile zezibonakude ezingasebenzisa izibuko. Noma ngabe iyiphi i-telescope esetshenziswayo, umsebenzi wayo oyinhloko ukugxilisa ukukhanya okuningi ngangokunokwenzeka futhi unikeze isithombe esibukhali sezinto ezikude.

Injongo ingaba ilensi (noma isibuko) enembobo ethile noma ububanzi okuthi, lapho ukukhanya kwamukelwa, kugxiliswe ngakolunye uhlangothi lweshubhu lokubona. Amashubhu okukhanya angenziwa nge-fiberglass, amakhadibhodi, insimbi, noma ezinye izinto.

Iphuzu lapho ukukhanya kugxiliswe khona libizwa ngokuthi indawo okugxilwe kuyo, futhi ibanga ukusuka kulensi ukuya endaweni okugxilwe kuyo libizwa ngokuthi ubude bokugxila. Isilinganiso sokugxilile noma irediyasi isilinganiso esiphakathi kwendawo yokuvula kanye nobude obugxilile, simele ukukhanya kwesistimu futhi silingana nenani lezitobhi zika-f ezibekwe ngobude bokugxila (focal ratio = focal length / aperture).

I-focal ratio encane (f/4) ihlinzeka ngesithombe esigqamile kune-focal ratio enkulu (f/10). Uma izithombe zidingeka, isistimu ene-focal ratio encane ithandeka kakhulu ngoba isikhathi sokuchayeka sizoba sifushane.

Lapho indawo yokuvula (ububanzi) bethelesikophu inkulu, ukukhanya kuzoqoqwa futhi isithombe esiwumphumela sizogqama. Lokhu kubalulekile ngoba cishe zonke izinto zasemkhathini zilufifi kakhulu nokukhanya kwazo kufiphele kakhulu. Ukuphinda kabili ububanzi besibonakude kuphindwe kane indawo ethola ukukhanya, okusho ukuthi isibonakude esingamayintshi angu-12 sithola ukukhanya okuphindwe kane kunesibonakude esingama-intshi angu-4.

Njengoba sandisa imbobo, sizobona izinkanyezi ezinobukhulu zincipha. Ubukhulu ukukhanya kwento yasezulwini. Amanani asondele ku-0 ayakhanya. Ubukhulu obunegethivu bukhanya kakhulu. Iso liyakwazi ukubona phansi lize lifike ku-6 magnitude, elihambisana nezinkanyezi ezincane kakhulu ezisemaphethelweni okubonakala.

Izibonakude ezinkulu ezinobubanzi azikuvumeli nje kuphela ukuthi ubone izinto ezimnyama. Ngaphandle kwalokho, kwandisa inani lemininingwane, okungukuthi kwandisa ukulungiswa. Izazi zezinkanyezi zikala ukucaca ngamasekhondi e-arc. Ukulungiswa kwesibonakude kungahlolwa ngokubheka ukwehlukana phakathi kwezinkanyezi ezimbili, okwaziwayo ukwehlukana kwazo ngokusobala noma okuyi-angular.

Ngethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi mayelana nendlela isibonakude esisebenza ngayo.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.