Isibonakude sesikhala seHubble

Isibonakude sesikhala seHubble

Ekufuneni ulwazi ngesikhala sangaphandle kanye ne Uhlelo lomkhathi, isibonakude sesikhala esixobayo. Kuyithuluzi elikwazi ukuthola izithombe ezisezingeni elihle emazingeni aphezulu ngaphandle kokubheka imikhawulo yokuba semaphethelweni angaphandle wesendlalelo sokugcina somkhathi. Igama layo kungenxa yesazi sezinkanyezi esidumile saseMelika U-Edwin hubble, owasiza kakhulu ulwazi loMhlaba.

Kule ndatshana, sizochaza ukuthi iHubble Space Telescope isebenza kanjani nokuthi yini esiyitholile selokhu yasungulwa. Ngabe ufuna ukwazi kabanzi ngayo?

Izici eziyinhloko

Izici zeTeleskopu

Lesi sibonakude sitholakala emaphethelweni angaphandle omkhathi. Umjikelezo wayo ungamakhilomitha angama-593 ngaphezu kogu lolwandle. Kuthatha kuphela imizuzu engama-97 ukuhamba ngomjikelezo woMhlaba. Yabekwa ku-orbit okokuqala ngqa ngo-Ephreli 24, 1990 ngenhloso yokuthola izithombe ezingcono ezinokulungiswa okuphezulu.

Phakathi kobukhulu bayo siyathola enesisindo esingaba amakhilogremu ayi-11.000 nesimo se-cylindrical ububanzi baso obungamamitha ayi-4,2 nobude obungu-13,2 m. Njengoba ukwazi ukubona, siyisibonakude esikhulu impela ngosayizi, kepha nokho iyakwazi ukuntanta emkhathini lapho amandla adonsela phansi engekho.

IHubble Space Telescope iyakwazi ukubonakalisa ukukhanya okufika kuyo ngenxa yezibuko zayo ezimbili. Izibuko nazo zikhulu ngokweqile. Omunye wabo ulinganisa amamitha ayi-2,4 ububanzi. Ilungele ukuhlola isibhakabhaka ngoba iqukethe amakhamera amathathu ahlanganisiwe nama-spectrometer amaningana. Amakhamera ahlukaniswe ngemisebenzi eyahlukahlukene. Enye isetshenziselwa ukuthatha izithombe zezindawo ezincane kunazo zonke esikhaleni esincike kuso ngenxa yokugqama kwayo kude. Le yindlela abazama ngayo ukuthola amaphuzu amasha esikhaleni futhi basungule kangcono imephu ephelele.

Enye ikhamera isetshenziselwa ukuthwebula amaplanethi nokuthola eminye imininingwane ngawo. Lesi sakamuva sisetshenziselwa ukuthola imisebe futhi sisayithwebula ebumnyameni ngoba isebenza ngemisebe ye-infrared. Kungenxa yamandla avuselelekayo ukuthi lesi sibonakude singasebenza isikhathi eside.

Izinzuzo zeHubble Space Telescope

Ukushayisana kwemithala emibili

Ukushayisana kwemithala emibili

Inamapaneli amabili elanga asetshenziselwa ukukhiqiza ugesi futhi avuselele amakhamera namanye ama-motors amane asetshenziselwa ukuqondisa isibonakude lapho kunesidingo sokuthwebula okuthile. Imishini yesiqandisi nayo iyadingeka ukugcina ikhamera ye-infrared ne-spectrometer isebenza. La maqembu amabili adinga ukuba ku -180 ° C.

Selokhu kwethulwe isibonakude, osomkhathi abaningi kuye kwadingeka baye kuyo ukulungisa izinto ezithile nokufaka imishini eyengeziwe yokusiza ukuthuthukisa ukuqoqwa kolwazi. Ubuchwepheshe buqhubeka ngokuthuthuka futhi kuyadingeka ukwenza ngcono isibonakude ngaphambi kokudala okusha njalo.

Yize isendaweni ephakeme kakhulu, kusekhona ukungqubuzana nomoya odalayo isibonakude sincipha kancane kancane futhi sithola ijubane. Lokhu kugqoka kudala ukuthi njalo lapho osomkhathi besiya ukulungisa noma ukuthuthukisa okuthile, bayisunduzela emzileni omkhulu ukuze kunciphise ukungqubuzana.

Inzuzo yokuba nesibonakude kulokhu kuphakama ukuthi azithintwa yizimo zezulu ezifana nokuba khona kwamafu, ukungcola okuncane noma inkungu. Ngokuba nesibonakude ngaphesheya kwezingqimba ezingezansi zomkhathi, amabanga amade amade angabanjwa futhi ikhwalithi yezithombe ithuthuke ngokuqhathaniswa nezibonakude ezisemhlabeni.

Ukuvela kweHubble Space Telescope

Isithombe sezinkulungwane zemithala

Isithombe sezinkulungwane zemithala

Kusukela ekuqaleni kokudalwa kwayo, kwenziwa umzamo wokubuyisa isibonakude eMhlabeni eminyakeni engaba ngu-5 ukwenza ukulungiswa okudingekayo nokuyithuthukisa. Noma kunjalo, ubungozi bokuyibuyisela eMhlabeni nokuthi kufanele uyethule futhi babonwa. Ngakho-ke, kwathathwa isinqumo sokuthi kuthunyelwe umkhankaso wesondlo njalo eminyakeni emithathu ukuze kwenziwe isondlo futhi siyithuthukise njengoba imibono iphakanyiswa nobuchwepheshe buthuthukiswa.

Ekuqaleni kokwethulwa kwayo, kwatholakala ukuthi inephutha ekwakhiweni kwayo futhi yilapho kwavela isidingo sokwenza imisebenzi yokuqala yokulungisa. Kwakubalulekile ukwenza ukulungiswa okudingekayo ukuze i-optics ikwazi ukuthatha izithombe ezingcono. TNgemuva kokulungiswa kwayo kokuqala, iphutha lalungiswa futhi lalungiswa ngemiphumela emihle.

Ukufunda emaphutheni, kwafakwa uhlelo lokusiza ukulungisa i-optics yesibonakude, ngoba iyinsika yokusebenza kwayo. Ngenxa yalokhu, izithombe ezinekhwalithi emangalisayo zingatholakala ukuze ufunde kabanzi nge-Universe. Isibonelo, ukwazile ukuthatha izithombe ze- ukushayisana kwe-comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 neplanethi i-Jupiter ngo-1994 futhi kukhombisile ubufakazi bokuba khona kwamanye amaplanethi amaningi azungeza ezinye izinkanyezi njengeLanga lethu.

Umbono okhona ngokwandiswa koMkhathi usegcwalisiwe futhi wathuthukiswa ngenxa yolwazi olutholwe nguHubble. Ngaphezu kwalokho, iqiniso lokuthi yonke imithala inembobo emnyama enkabeni yalo kuqinisekisiwe.

Ukuthuthuka okuthile

Ukwakhiwa Komkhathi

Ngenxa yesimo saso, izithombe eziningi zamaplanethi ngokucacile okuhle kakhulu zitholwe ngokuningiliziwe. Ngalesi sibonakude, kuye kwenzeka ukuqinisekisa ubukhona bemigodi emnyama futhi kwacaciswa eminye imibono mayelana ne- Ithiyori enkulu yeBang nokuzalwa koMkhathi. Ukutholakala kwemithala eminingi nezinye izinhlelo ezihlale zifihlekile ekujuleni komkhathi kudaluliwe.

Ngo-1995, isibonakude sakwazi ukuthatha isithombe sesifunda esilingana nesigidi esisodwa samashumi amathathu e-Universe lapho kwakungabonakala khona imithala eyizinkulungwane eziningana. Kamuva, e1998, kwathathwa esinye isithombe lapho kungenzeka khona ukuqinisekisa iqiniso lokuthi ukwakheka kwe-Universe kuzimele ekuqondeni lapho obuka khona abuka khona.

Njengoba ukwazi ukubona, iHubble Space Telescope isize kakhulu ekutholeni i-Universe.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.