Iodide yesiliva

ukudalwa kwemvula

Enye yezinhlanganisela zamakhemikhali ezidale impikiswano enkulu eminyakeni yamuva ukuthi iodide yesiliva. Kuyinhlanganisela engajwayelekile eyenziwe nge-athomu yesiliva ne-athomu ye-iodine. Ungumbala okhanyayo we-crystalline ophuzi okhanyayo oba mnyama uma uvezwa ekukhanyeni isikhathi eside. Ayincibiliki emanzini kepha ingahlakazeka lapho kukhona i-iodide ion enkulu.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela ngazo zonke izici, izakhiwo nokusetshenziswa kwe-iodide yesiliva.

Izici eziyinhloko

imbewu yefu

Sikhuluma ngenhlanganisela engaphili enezakhi zamakristalu ezifana nalezi zeqhwa. Kuyo yonke le minyaka, ulwazi lwale nhlanganisela selukhulile futhi lunikezwe ukusetshenziswa okuningi. Enye yazo ukukhonza njengembewu yokukhiqiza imvula nokushintsha isimo sezulu. Lokhu kusetshenziswa kubuzwe kabanzi ngenxa ye- umonakalo ongaba khona iodide yesiliva ingadala lapho ichithwa emanzini. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ayikho imiphumela yesikhathi eside eyaziwayo engaguqula isimo sezulu sesifunda.

Kusukela ngekhulu leshumi nesishiyagalolunye ibisetshenziswa ezithombeni ngenxa yekhono lokumnyama ngokukhanya. Ibuye isetshenziswe emithini yokwelapha elwa namagciwane. Muva nje kunezifundo ezithile ngokusetshenziswa kwe-iodide yesiliva ekususweni kwe-iodine enemisebe kudoti okhiqizwe ezikhungweni zamandla enuzi.

Kuyinhlanganisela ukuthi inobuthi kubantu, ezilwaneni nasezitshalweni. Ngalesi sizathu, kunempikiswano enkulu ngokusetshenziswa kwe-iodide yesiliva ukuguqula isimo sezulu nokwenza imvula. Isakhiwo salesi sakhi sakhiwa isimo saso se-oxidation sesiliva ne-iodine ene-valence -1. Isibopho esiphakathi kwama-ions amabili siqine kakhulu futhi sizinzile. Lesi ngesinye sezizathu sokuthi kungani kungenakuncibilika emanzini. Isakhiwo se-crystalline sincike emazingeni okushisa esikuwo. Ngezansi kwamadigri ayi-137 kukhona ukuma kwe-cubic, phakathi kuka-137 no-145 degrees sinesiqina esinombala oluhlaza okotshani noma ophuzi okwe-beta. Okokugcina, uma izinga lokushisa likhuphuka ngaphezu kwamadigri ayi-145, izokwethula lelo iodide lesiliva elinombala ophuzi nangefomu le-alpha.

Izakhiwo ze-Silver Iodide imiphumela ye-iodide yesiliva

Siyazi ukuthi esimweni sayo semvelo somzimba siqinile esinombala ophuzi okhanyayo owakha amakristalu ayizinhlangothi eziyisithupha noma ama-cubic. Isisindo sayo samangqamuzana angama-234.773 amagremu emvukuzaneni ngayinye kanti iphuzu lokuncibilika kwalo lingama-degree angama-558. Ukuze i-Heliodorus ibilise isiliva kufanele ifinyelele emazingeni okushisa angama-1506 degrees.

Njengoba sishilo ngaphambili, iyinhlanganisela engaphili cishe encibilikayo emanzini. Ayincibiliki kuma-acids ngaphandle kwe-hydroiodic acid futhi iyancibilika ezixazululweni ezigxile njengama-alkali bromides nama-alkali chloride. Phakathi kwezakhi zayo zamakhemikhali sine-acid egxilwe inqobo nje uma isemazingeni aphezulu okushisa bese ihlasela kancane. Izixazululo lapho kune-iodide ion eyeqile ziyoncibilika, kwakheka iodine nesiliva okuyinkimbinkimbi. Esinye sezici esivelele ukuthi siyazwela ekukhanyeni. Uma ukukhanya kuvezwa isikhathi eside, kuba mnyama kancane bese kwakheka isiliva lensimbi.

I-iodide yesiliva isebenzisa

iodide yesiliva

Le nhlanganisela itholakala ngemvelo ngesimo se-iodargyrite yamaminerali. Uma iselebhu, ingalungiswa ngokushisa isixazululo se-nitrate yesiliva ngesisombululo se-alkaline iodide njenge-potassium iodide. Ngale ndlela, iodide yesiliva yenziwe ngokungeyena.

Okunye ukusetshenziswa okuyimpikiswano kakhulu kwe-iodide yesiliva kuwo wonke umlando ukukhiqiza imvula. ngiyazi Ungafaka isicelo emafwini ukushintsha inani noma uhlobo lwemvula. Ingadala izinqubo zesichotho, ihlakaze inkungu ebandayo noma inciphise izivunguvungu. Ukwenza lokhu, kungahlakazeka sengathi kuyimbewu ngaphakathi kwefu elibandayo eliqukethe amanzi oketshezi oluphezulu. I-Eta isho ukuthi amazinga okushisa angaphansi kuka-0 degrees. Ngokuba nesakhiwo samakristalu esifana naleso seqhwa, kuthanda ukumiswa kwamakhaza kwamanzi aqandiswe phezulu.

Inkinga yokusetshenziswa kwe-iodide yesilivere ukukhiqiza imvula yimiphumela yayo emibi. Futhi kungenxa yokuthi emva kokuhlakazeka njengenzalo emafwini kutholakala ngaphakathi kuyo futhi kugezwe imvula. Ukuba khona kwesiliva elincibilikayo kanzima emanzini emvula kuyinto okumele ibhekwe ngoba lingcolisa futhi linobuthi ezitshalweni, ezilwaneni nakubantu. Imvelo yasolwandle ithinta zonke izilwane nezitshalo.

I-Cloud seeding yisilingo esenziwa emashumini ambalwa eminyaka adlule. Uma amafu etshalwe ngokulandelana endaweni efanayo, kungakha umphumela we-iodide wesiliva oqoqekayo. Ngokwezifundo ezimbalwa zakamuva, ukugcwala kwe-iodide yesiliva etholakala ezindaweni lapho kusetshenziswe khona inqubo yokuhlwanyela amafu kuphakeme kakhulu kunomkhawulo lapho inobuthi kwezinye izinhlanzi nezinto eziphansi.

Kungashiwo ukuthi ukuphela kokusebenzisa okunengqondo kwe-iodide yesiliva kungaba ukwenza izivunguvungu zibe buthakathaka, ngaleyo ndlela kuncishiswe imiphumela yazo.

Okunye ukusetshenziswa

Njengoba sishilo ngaphambili, ngenxa yokuzwela kokukhanya kwakusetshenziswa ekuthatheni izithombe. Kuyinto ebonakalayo ekwazi ukuphendula lapho kukhona ukukhanya. Lokhu kuyenza isetshenziselwe ukuthola izinto zokwakha izithombe ezinjengemiqulu yezithombe lapho kwasetshenziswa amakristalu. Ngenxa ye-iodide yesiliva sikwazi ukuthatha izithombe kwikhamera endala.

Okunye ukusetshenziswa kukususwa kwe-iodine enemisebe. Njengoba inamandla amaningi okukhipha izikweledu, kuphakanyiswe ukuthi kususwe i-iodine enemisebe etholakala ezincithakalweni ezinamandla ezikhiqizwa ezikhungweni zamandla enuzi.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi nge-iodide yesiliva nokusetshenziswa kwayo.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

*

*

  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.