Intaba-mlilo yaseYellowstone

i-super volcano yellowstone

Enye yezintaba-mlilo ezaziwa kakhulu emhlabeni yi intabamlilo i-yellowstone. Itholakala eYellowstone National Park e-United States futhi isekhoneni elisenyakatho-ntshonalanga yeWyoming. Kuyintaba-mlilo eye yaba nokuphazamiseka okuphindwe kathathu eminyakeni eyizigidi eziyi-2.1 edlule futhi eyakha i-caldera elinganiselwa kumakhilomitha angama-55 × 72 30.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela konke odinga ukukwazi mayelana nezici, ukwakheka komhlaba nokuqhuma kwentaba-mlilo i-Yellowstone.

Izici eziyinhloko

udaka olusebenzayo

Kunezindinganiso eziningi zemvelaphi ye-Yellowstone hotspot. Ezinye izazi ze-geologists zithi zakhiwe ngokuhlangana kwezimo zasendaweni ku-lithosphere kanye ne-convection engubeni ephezulu. Eminye ikhombisa ukuthi yavela engutsheni ejulile (izimpaphe zengubo). Le ngxabano ifanele ekubukekeni kwezindawo ezishisayo kwirekhodi lokwakheka komhlaba. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ukugeleza kwe-basalt yaseColombia kwavela ngasikhathi sinye, okwadala ukuqagela ngemvelaphi yayo.

I-crater isendaweni eshisayo. Indawo yamanje yaseYellowstone ingaphansi kweYellowstone Plateau. Yize ibonakala inqamula indawo isuka empumalanga iye empumalanga, i-hotspot empeleni ijule kakhulu kunendawo futhi ihlala imile.

Eminyakeni eyizigidi eziyi-18 edlule, i-Yellowstone hotspot kukhiqize ukuqhuma okuqhubekayo kobudlova nezikhukhula ze-basalt. Okungenani i-12 yalokhu kuqhuma kwakukukhulu kakhulu kangangokuthi kwahlukaniswa njengokuqhuma okukhulu. Kwesinye isikhathi lokho kuqhuma kwakuthulula i-magma egcinwe ngokushesha okukhulu kangangokuba indawo engaphezulu yawela ekamelweni le-magma elixegayo, lakhe intaba-mlilo okuthiwa. Ukudangala komlomo komlomo. Izintaba-mlilo zentaba-mlilo ezakhiwa ukuqhuma kokuqhuma zingaba zinkulu futhi zijule njengamachibi amakhulu naphakathi, futhi zingadala ukuthi izindawo ezinkulu zezintaba zinyamalale.

Amathrekhi amadala kakhulu emgodini ahamba zombili izinhlangothi zomngcele weNevada-Oregon ngaseMcDermit. Enye yemigodi, iBruno-Jabici Crater eningizimu ye-Idaho, yasungulwa eminyakeni eyizigidi eziyi-10-12 edlule, nokwakheka kwayo kwashiya ungqimba lomlotha ojule ngamasentimitha angama-30 enyakatho-mpumalanga yeNebraska.

Ukuqhuma kwentaba-mlilo i-Yellowstone

intabamlilo i-yellowstone

Eminyakeni eyizigidi eziyi-17 edlule, intaba-mlilo i-Yellowstone ikhiqize ukuqhuma kwentaba-mlilo okungu-142 noma ngaphezulu. I-Yellowstone National Park ihleli ezigodini ezine zentaba-mlilo ezigqagqene (US NPS).

Izinkambu zentaba-mlilo ezikhiqiza ukuqhuma okukhulu ngokungavamile zibizwa ngokuthi ama-supervolcanoes. Ichazwe kanjalo, i-supervolcano yaseYellowstone kuyinkambu yentaba-mlilo ekhiqize ukuphazanyiswa kokugcina okuthathu kwe-Yellowstone hotspot. Iphinde yakhiqiza ukuqhuma okuncane okwakha iWest Thumb Lake eminyakeni eyi-174.000 edlule.

Ukugeleza kwamadwala kwakamuva kakhulu kwenzeka eminyakeni engaba ngu-70.000 150.000 edlule nokuqhuma kobudlova kwenzeka eNtshonalanga Thumb Lake entshonalanga yeJongstone eminyakeni engaba ngu-13.800 5 edlule. Kukhona nokuqhuma kwesitimu. Eminyakeni eyi-XNUMX eyedlule, ukuqhuma kwesitimu kwakha umgodi wobubanzi obungamakhilomitha ama-XNUMX eMary Bay onqenqemeni lweChibi iYellowstone maphakathi nomgodi.

Namuhla, ukuqhuma kwentaba-mlilo kwenzeka ngemiphunga eminingi eshisa phansi esakazeke esifundeni sonke, kufaka phakathi igiza elidumile le-Old Faithful, kanye nenqubo yokwandiswa kwenhlabathi ekhombisa ukwanda okuqhubekayo kwegumbi le-magma elingaphansi. Ngenxa yokuqhuma kwentaba-mlilo nokusebenza okuqhubekayo komhlaba, ibhulokhi enkulu ingaphansi kobuso bomgodi.

Imagma kuleli gumbi iqukethe igesi futhi kuphela ingahlala ichithekile ngaphansi kwengcindezi enkulu yemagma. Uma ingcindezi ikhishwa ngezinga elithile ngenxa yezinguquko ezithile zokwakheka komhlaba, ingxenye yamabhamuza egesi ancibilikile enza, kubangele ukuthi i-magma ikhule. Uma lokhu kunwetshwa kuveza ukukhishwa okukhulu kwengcindezi, kungadala ukusabela okungalawulwa futhi kungaholela ekuqhumeni kwegesi enobudlova.

Ingozi yentaba-mlilo yaseYellowstone

ikamelo le-magmatic

Phakathi kuka-2004 no-2008, kube nokwanda ebusweni be-crater yaseYellowstone cishe ngo-7,6 cm ngonyaka, ngaphezu kokuphindwe kathathu kunalokho okuye kwabonwa selokhu lezi zilinganiso zaqala ngo-1923. Ososayensi abavela e-US Geological Survey. I-US, i-University of Utah, iNational Park Service kanye ne-Yellowstone Volcano Observatory bathe: “Asibuboni ubufakazi bokuthi okunye ukuqhuma kwenhlekelele kuzokwenzeka eYellowstone esikhathini esizayo esibonwayo. Izikhathi eziphindaphindekayo zale micimbi azivamile futhi azibikezeli ”

Ngokuya kocwaningo olwenziwe yiNational Geographic Society, ukuqhuma okukhulu okulandelayo kweYellowstone kungenzeka kwenzeke kwenye yezindawo ezintathu ezinamaphutha ezinqamulelayo ezinqamula epaki ngasenyakatho / enyakatho ntshonalanga. Ezimbili zalezi zindawo zikhiqize ukugeleza okukhulu kwelava ngesikhathi somsebenzi wokugcina we-supervolano, eminyakeni eyi-174.000-70.000 edlule, kanti indawo yesithathu iyindawo eneziqubu eziningi zokundindizela eminyakeni yamuva.

Ukuzamazama komhlaba okuhlobene

Ngenxa yesimo sentaba-mlilo namathambo endaweni, umgodi we-Yellowstone uhlangabezana nokudlidliza okungu-1,000 2,000 kuya ku-XNUMX XNUMX unyaka nonyaka. Ngesinye isikhathi, inani elikhulu lokuthuthumela liyaqoshwa ngesikhathi esifushane.

Esifundweni sabo, abacwaningi basebenzise inethiwekhi yama-seismographs atholakala ezungeze ipaki ukumaka ikamelo le-magma. Amagagasi ahamba kancane lapho edlula ezintweni ezishisayo, ezincibilikile kancane, ukuze ukwazi ukukala izinto ngaphansi. Njengoba ithimba lososayensi libonile, lo mhume we-magma mkhulu kakhulu: uphakathi kwamakhilomitha amabili namakhilomitha ayi-2 ukujula, cishe amakhilomitha angama-15 ubude namakhilomitha angama-90 ububanzi.

Inwebeka ngokuya enyakatho-mpumalanga yepaki kunezinye izifundo ezivezile futhi iqukethe inhlanganisela yokuqina nodaka. Ngokwazi kwethu, imephu yalesi sikali ayikaze idwetshwe. Ngalokhu okutholakele, abacwaningi bangahlola kangcono usongo olubangelwa yimidondoshiya engazinzile. Umthombo oyinhloko wokushisa we-Yellowstone ilele phakathi kwamakhilomitha angama-405 futhi acishe abe ngu-2.900 XNUMX ngaphansi kobuso. Ingavela kumongo wayo woketshezi. Ososayensi sebevele bayazi ukuthi igumbi lamagma litholakala ngaphezu kwechibi futhi lidonsa i-magma kulo. Kutholakala amakhilomitha ayi-5 kuye kwayi-14 ngaphansi komhlaba futhi uwuphethiloli wamagiza, amachibi ashunqayo nezinye izinto ezihehayo.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi mayelana nentaba-mlilo yaseYellowstone nezici zayo.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

*

*

  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.