Imodeli ye-athomu kaDalton

Imodeli ye-athomu kaDalton

UJohn Dalton ungusosayensi waseNgilandi, isazi samakhemikhali nesazi sezulu owenze umehluko emhlabeni wesayensi ngenxa yokufakwa kwemfundiso yesimanje ye-athomu. Lo mbono waziwa ngokuthi imodeli ye-athomu yeDalton futhi bekufanele impela. UJohn Dalton waziwa futhi ngezifundo zakhe ngokungakwazi ukuhlukanisa imibala esweni lomuntu. Yile ndlela esazi ngayo lokhu kukhubazeka njengobumpumputhe bombala.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela ngazo zonke izici nokubaluleka imodeli ye-athomu kaDalton eyayinayo kwisayensi.

Indaba Encane KaDalton

UJohn dalton

Ukwethula imodeli ye-athomu kaDalton, ake siqale sibukeze umlando walo sosayensi kancane. Futhi ukuthi umqondo we-athomu waqala ngesazi sefilosofi esingumGreki uDemocritus. Kodwa-ke, lo mbono awuzange wamukelwe kabanzi futhi ngisho nososayensi abaningi bakuthola kungenangqondo amakhulu eminyaka namakhulu eminyaka. Njengoba le Atomism nayo yonke imisinga yefilosofi yamaGrikhi eyayikhona, kudlula iminyaka engaphezu kwengu-2 1804 ukuthi enye inkolelo-mbono ye-athomu ibe nokusebenziseka okunjalo ezweni lesayensi. Kodwa-ke, ngo-XNUMX, uJohn Dalton, kwakususelwa emibonweni yama-Atomists ukuthi ikwazi ukwethula imodeli ye-athomu kaDalton.

Imodeli yakhe kube ngumphumela weziphetho azitholile ekuhlolweni okuhlukahlukene okwenziwe ngezinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zamagesi. Ngokuya ngemiphumela yalolu phenyo, kungakhonjiswa ukuthi ama-athomu akhona ngempela. UDemocritus wayengazange akhombise ukuthi i-athomu ikhona njengoba injalo. Ngale ndlela, enye yemibono ebaluleke kakhulu emlandweni we-physics yanamuhla idaliwe.

Okulandelayo, sizochaza imigomo eyisisekelo yemodeli ye-athomu kaDalton.

Izimiso eziyisisekelo zemodeli ye-athomu ka-Alto

Imodeli yeDalton Atomic Postulates

  • Yonke into yenziwa ngama-athomu. Lokhu kusho ukuthi konke esikwaziyo nalokho okubonakalayo kwakhiwa ngama-athomu aseplanethi yethu nakuwo wonke umkhathi owaziwayo. Zonke izakhi nazo zenziwe ngama-athomu.
  • Ama-athomu ahlukaniswa ngokungenakonakala. UDalton wayekholelwa ukuthi ama-athomu ayizinhlayiya ezazincane ngosayizi wezinto futhi ezingonakali ngamakhemikhali.
  • Onke ama-athomu ento ayafana. Kumele sazi ukuthi wonke ama-athomu akha uhlobo lwama-elementi anesisindo esifanayo nezici ezifanayo. Futhi bane-morphology efanayo futhi bahamba ngejubane elifanayo.
  • Ama-athomu wezinto ezahlukahlukene ayahluka ngobukhulu nangezakhiwo. Lokhu yikho okwenza into ngayinye yehluke kwenye. Njengoba zonke izinto zakhiwa ngama-athomu, la ma-athomu anezici nobukhulu obuhlukile.
  • Amakhemikhali akhiwa inhlanganisela yezinhlobo ezimbili noma ngaphezulu zama-athomu. Lokhu kugomela kwamakhompiyutha yilokho okubangela ukwahlukahluka okuningi kuzakhi. Futhi kungukuthi, yize inhlanganisela inezinhlobo ezifanayo zama-athomu, ahlanganisiwe futhi alinganiswa ngokulingana.
  • Ukusabela kwamakhemikhali ukuhlelwa kabusha kwama-athomu. Lapho ukwenzeka kwamakhemikhali kwenzeka akuyona nje into eyehlukanisa, ukuhlanganiswa noma ukuhlelwa kabusha kwama-athomu. Asikhulumi ngama-athomu aguqula izici zawo noma ubukhulu bawo. Ama-athomu ento eyodwa awashintshi abe ama-athomu enye into ngenxa yokusabela okweqile kwamakhemikhali. Vele ushintshe inhlangano yakho.

Ukucatshangelwa okungeziwe kwe-Atomic Model kaDalton

I-Atom

Lapho imigomo yemodeli ichaziwe, kwadingeka kwenziwe okunye ukucubungula okwakungaqedela zonke izici zale modeli. Ngaphezu kwale migomo uJohn Dalton uphakamise lokho ama-athomu wezinto ahlangana nomunye nomunye ukwenza ama-molecule athobela umthetho wokongiwa kwesisindo. Lokhu kusho ukuthi inani nohlobo lokuthula okune-molecule lilingana nenombolo nohlobo lwe-athomu lemikhiqizo esetshenziswe ekuphenduleni kwamakhemikhali. Lokhu futhi kuthobela umthetho othi into ayidalwanga futhi ayichithwa, kepha iyaguqulwa.

Esinye isici esibalulekile semodeli ye-athomu kaDalton kwakuyi-Law of Multiple Proportions. Lo mthetho usitshela ukuthi uma sihlanganisa ama-athomu wezinto ezimbili, la ma-athomu angahlangana kuphela maqondana nezinombolo eziphelele. Ngamanye amagama, i-athomu ingahlanganiswa njengenye i-athomu, ama-athomu amabili ane-athomu elilodwa, ama-athomu amabili namanye ama-athomu amabili, njll. Isibonelo esisisiza ukuba siqonde uMthetho Wezilinganiso Eziningi yilesi esilandelayo: sithatha amanzi siwahlanganise ngesilinganiso esingu-2 kuye ku-1. Lokhu kusho ukuthi amanzi anama-athomu amabili e-hydrogen nge-oksijini ngalinye. Ngakho-ke, akukho silinganiso ebesinaso kulezi zinto singasetshenziswa ukukhiqiza amanzi. Lokho wukuthi, asikwazi ukukhiqiza amanzi uma sisebenzisa ama-athomu ama-hydrogen ama-3 nama-athomu ama-2 oksijini.

Ukuze ukwazi ukunikeza izici kuma-athomu aseDalton idale itafula lezisindo ze-athomu. Leli thebula belilusizo impela ngoba beliqukethe zonke izinto ngokulandelana okuthile kususelwa kusisindo sazo. Zonke izakhi ezisetafuleni zaqhathaniswa ne-hydrogen, lokhu kube okulula kakhulu kunakho konke. Ngakho-ke, i-hydrogen iyinombolo yokuqala etafuleni futhi inenombolo ye-athomu engu-1.

Ukwamukelwa kwemodeli ye-athomu kaDalton nemikhawulo yayo

Njengoba lezi zinhlobo zephula amasu kuze kube yileso sikhathi zisungulwa, ukuvunywa bekuyinkimbinkimbi kakhulu. Kodwa-ke, imodeli ye-athomu kaDalton yamukelwa ososayensi abaningi bangaleso sikhathi ngokushesha. Ngenxa yale modeli ye-athomu sinezisekelo eziningi zemfundiso yamanje.

Ososayensi banamuhla bayazi ukuthi ama-athomu anezinhlobo eziningana zezinhlayiya ezincane njengama-proton, neutron, nama-electron. Le mbono kaDalton yaba yisisekelo semfundiso yamakhemikhali.

Inkinga ngale modeli ye-athomu, ibibuye ibe namaphutha nokulinganiselwa okuthile. Futhi ukuthi uDaltón wayecabanga ukuthi ama-athomu azo zonke izakhi akwazi ukuhlala ngawodwana, ngakho-ke akakwazanga ukubona ukuthi kwezinye izakhi ama-athomu akhona enza ama-molecule, njengakwi-oxygen emsulwa. I-oxygen emsulwa yakhiwe ngama-athomu amabili e-oxygen. Lokho wukuthi, kuyimolekyuli yento efanayo kodwa enama-athomu amabili e-oxygen.

Elinye lamaphutha amakhulu ale modeli ukuthi bekucatshangwa ukuthi inhlanganisela elula kunazo zonke phakathi kwezinto ezimbili ihlala i-athomu yento ngayinye. Lokhu kumenze waphetha ngokuthi amanzi yi-HO kunokuba yi-H2O.

Kodwa-ke, imodeli ye-athomu kaDalton yathuthukisa umhlaba wamakhemikhali ne-physics kude kakhulu. Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngemodeli ye-athomu kaDalton.


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  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.