Imodeli ye-athomu kaRutherford

Imodeli ye-athomu kaRutherford

Ngemuva kokwazi Imodeli ye-athomu kaThomson, ebibheka ama-electron ukuthi aphakathi nendawo ekhokhiswa kahle, imodeli esezingeni eliphakeme kakhulu eyaziwa njenge Imodeli ye-athomu kaRutherford. Usosayensi ophethe le ntuthuko entsha yesayensi kwakungu-Ernest Rutherford. Wazalwa ngo-Agasti 20, 1871 futhi washona ngo-Okthoba 19, 1937. Ngesikhathi esaphila wenza amagalelo amakhulu kwezamakhemikhali nasemkhakheni wesayensi jikelele.

Ngakho-ke, sizonikezela le ndatshana ukukutshela konke odinga ukukwazi ngemodeli ye-athomu kaRutherford.

Isivivinyo seGolide Leaf

Iphethini leqabunga legolide

Imodeli endala ye-thomson yathi ama-electron ayesezingeni eliphakeme kakhulu. Ngo-1909 u-Ernest Rutherford, ephelezelwa ngabasizi ababili ababizwa ngoGeiger noMarsden, benza ucwaningo olwaziwa ngokuthi ukuhlolwa kweGold Leaf lapho bangakuqinisekisa khona lokho "I-raisin pudding" eyaziwayo kaThomson yayingalungile. Futhi ukuthi lesi silingo esisha sikwazile ukukhombisa ukuthi i-athomu inesakhiwo esinecala elihle eliqinile. Lokhu kuhlolwa akukwazanga ukusiza ukuvuselela iziphetho ezagcina zethulwe njengemodeli ye-athomu kaRutherford ngo-1911.

Ukuhlolwa okwaziwa ngeGold Leaf kwakungahlukile, kepha kwenziwa phakathi kuka-1909 no-1913. Basebenzisa lokhu ama-laboratories e-physics eNyuvesi yaseManchester. Lezi zivivinyo zazibaluleke kakhulu njengoba iziphetho ezintsha zazingasungulwa kusukela emiphumeleni yazo, okwaholela esimweni se-athomu esiguqukayo.

Lokhu kuhlolwa kuqukethe lokhu okulandelayo: ishidi elincanyana legolide kuphela elingu-100nm ubukhulu kwakufanele liqhunyiswe ngenqwaba yezinhlayiya ze-alpha. Lezi zinhlayiya ze-alpha zazingama-ion. Lokho wukuthi, ama-athomu angenawo ama-electron, ngakho-ke ayenama-proton nama-neutron kuphela. Ngokuba nama-neutron namaprotoni, inani eliphelele le-athomu lalifanelekile. Lokhu kuhlolwa ikakhulukazi bekunehloso yokuqinisekisa ukuthi ngabe imodeli kaThomson ilungile. Uma ngabe le modeli beyilungile, izinhlayiya ze-alpha kwakudingeka zidlule kuma-athomu egolide kulayini oqondile.

Ukuze ufunde ukuphambuka okubangelwa izinhlayiya ze-alpha, isihlungi se-fluorescent zinc sulfide kwakufanele sibekwe sizungeze ucwecwe lwegolide oluhle. Umphumela walokhu kuhlolwa ukuthi kubonwe ukuthi ezinye izinhlayiya zikwazile ukudlula kuma-athomu egolide eshidi ngendlela eqondile. Kodwa-ke, ezinye zalezi zinhlayiya ze-alpha zaphambukiswa ngezinkomba ezingahleliwe.

Iziphetho zesilingo seGolide Leaf

Ukuhlolwa

Njengoba kunikezwe leli qiniso, bekungeke kwenzeke ukuqinisa ukuthi amamodeli we-athomu wangaphambilini athathwa kanjani. Futhi ukuthi lezi zinhlobo ze-athomu ziveze ukuthi ukukhokhiswa okuhle kwasatshalaliswa ngokufanayo kuma-athomu futhi lokhu kuzokwenza kube lula ukuweqa ngoba ukukhokhiswa kwawo bekungeke kube namandla ngesikhathi esithile.

Imiphumela yalokhu kuhlolwa kweGold Leaf ibingalindelekile neze. Lokhu kwenza uRutherford acabange ukuthi i-athomu inesikhungo esinenkokhiso eqinile eyakha lapho kuyizinhlayiyana ze-alpha zama ukuyidlulisa inqatshiwe yisakhiwo esimaphakathi. Ukuze kusungulwe umthombo othembeke ngokwengeziwe, izinhlayiya zibhekwe ngobuningi balabo ababonakalisiwe nalabo ababengabonakali. Ngenxa yalokhu kukhethwa kwezinhlayiya, bekwenzeka ukunquma ubukhulu be-nucleus ngokuqhathaniswa nomjikelezo wama-electron awuzungezile. Kungaphethwa futhi ngokuthi isikhala esiningi se-athomu asinalutho.

Kungabonakala, ezinye izinhlayiya ze-alpha zahlanzwa ngocingo lwegolide. Abanye babo baphambukile ngama-engeli amancane kakhulu. Lokhu kusizile ukuphetha ngokuthi ukukhokhiswa okuhle kwi-athomu akusatshalaliswa ngokulinganayo. Lokho wukuthi, ukukhokhiswa okuhle kutholakala kwi-athomu ngendlela egxilile kumthamo omncane kakhulu wesikhala.

Zimbalwa kakhulu izinhlayiya ze-alpha ezaphindela emuva. Lokhu kuphambuka kubonisa ukuthi izinhlayiya ezishiwoyo ngale ndlela bezingaphinda ziphinde zibuye. Ngenxa yakho konke lokhu kubhekwa okusha, imodeli ye-athomu kaRutherford ingasungulwa ngemibono emisha.

Imodeli ye-athomu kaRutherford

U-Ernest Rutherford

Sizofunda ukuthi yiziphi izimiso zemodeli ye-athomu kaRutherford:

  • Izinhlayiyana ezinesamba esivumayo ngaphakathi kwe-athomu zihlelwe ngevolumu encane kakhulu uma siyiqhathanisa nenani eliphelele le-athomu elishiwoyo.
  • Cishe bonke ubunzima i-athomu enalo bukulevolumu encane eshiwo. Lesi siga sangaphakathi sabizwa ngokuthi i-nucleus.
  • Ama-electron anezinsolo ezingezinhle zitholakala zizungeza i-nucleus.
  • Ama-electron ajikeleza ngesivinini esikhulu lapho ezungeze i-nucleus futhi enza kanjalo ezindleleni eziyindilinga. Lezi zinqola ezibizwa ngokuthi ama-trajectories zabizwa ngokuthi ama-orbits. Kamuva ngizo aziwa njengama-orbitals.
  • Womabili lawo ma-electron akhokhiswe kabi ne-nucleus ye-athomu elikhokhiswe kahle uqobo ahlala ebanjwa ndawonye ngenxa yamandla akhangayo kagesi.

Ukwamukelwa nokulinganiselwa kwemodeli ye-athomu kaRutherford

Njengoba bekulindelekile, le modeli entsha ibhekwe ngeso lengqondo i-panorama entsha ngokuphelele ye-athomu emhlabeni wezesayensi. Ngenxa yale modeli ye-athomu, ososayensi abaningi bakamuva bangafunda futhi banqume inani lama-electron into ngayinye etafuleni lezinsuku enawo. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ukutholwa okusha kungenziwa okusiza ekuchazeni ukusebenza kwe-athomu ngendlela elula.

Noma kunjalo, le modeli inezilinganiso ezithile neziphazamiso. Yize kube yintuthuko emhlabeni we-physics, babengeyona imodeli ephelele noma ephelele. Futhi lokho kungukuthi ngokusho kwemithetho kaNewton nesici esibalulekile semithetho kaMaxwell, le modeli ayikwazanga ukuchaza izinto ezithile:

  • Akakwazanga ukuchaza ukuthi amacala amabi akwazi kanjani ukubamba ndawonye ku-nucleus. Ngokusho kwe-tibia ye-elekthronikhi, amacala amahle kufanele ahlangane.
  • Okunye ukuphikisana kwakubhekiswe emithethweni eyisisekelo ye-electrodynamics. Uma ama-electron anecala elihle abhekwa njengokuzungeza i-nucleus, kufanele akhiphe imisebe kagesi kagesi. Ngokukhipha le radiation, kudliwa amandla ukuze ama-electron awe enucleus. Ngakho-ke, imodeli ye-athomu ebunjiwe ayikwazi ukuchaza ukuzinza kwe-athomu.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngemodeli ye-athomu kaRutherford.


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